Panama disease

soil fungus outbreak
Panama disease (or Fusarium wilt) is a plant disease that infects banana plants (Musa spp.).wikipedia
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Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Tropical race 4F. oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubenseFusarium oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubense
It is a wilting disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc).
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.

Cavendish banana

CavendishbananasCavendish banana subgroup
Currently, a new outbreak of Panama disease caused by the strain Tropical Race 4 (TR4) threatens the production of today's most popular cultivars, Cavendish.
They replaced the Gros Michel banana (commonly known as Kampala banana in Kenya and Bogoya in Uganda) after it was devastated by Panama disease.

Banana

bananasbanana treebanana flower
Panama disease (or Fusarium wilt) is a plant disease that infects banana plants (Musa spp.).
The cultivars Dwarf Cavendish and Grand Nain (Chiquita Banana) gained popularity in the 1950s after the previous mass-produced cultivar, Gros Michel (also an AAA group cultivar), became commercially unviable due to Panama disease, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum which attacks the roots of the banana plant.

Gros Michel banana

Gros Michel
During the 1950s, a first outbreak of Panama disease almost wiped out the commercial Gros Michel banana production.
This variety was once the dominant export banana to Europe and North America, grown in Central America, but in the 1950s, Panama disease, a wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, wiped out vast tracts of Gros Michel plantations in Central America, though it is still grown on non-infected land throughout the region.

Tully, Queensland

TullyTully State High SchoolTully, Queensland, Australia
In Queensland, a farm in Tully, 1500 km north of Brisbane, was quarantined and some plants were destroyed after TR4 was detected on March 3, 2015.
In March 2015, a farm at Tully tested positive for the soil-borne Panama disease.

Plant pathology

plant pathogenplant pathologistPhytopathology
Panama disease (or Fusarium wilt) is a plant disease that infects banana plants (Musa spp.).

Fungicide

fungicidesantifungalfungicidal
The pathogen is resistant to fungicides and until now, its control is limited to phytosanitary measures.

Cultivar

cultivarscultivated varietyvariety
The Gros Michel banana was the dominant cultivar of bananas, and Fusarium wilt inflicted enormous costs and forced producers to switch to other, disease-resistant cultivars.

Colombia

COLRepublic of ColombiaColombian
In August 2019, TR4 arrived in Colombia, a country in Latin America, the region comprising the world's biggest banana exporters. Over several decades, the fungus spread from Panama to neighboring countries, moving north through Costa Rica to Guatemala and south into Colombia and Ecuador.

Latin America

Latin AmericanLatin-AmericaCentral and South America
In August 2019, TR4 arrived in Colombia, a country in Latin America, the region comprising the world's biggest banana exporters.

Asexual reproduction

asexualasexuallyreproduce asexually
Modern commercially farmed banana plants are reproduced asexually, by replanting the plant's basal shoot that grows after the original plant has been cut down.

Pollen

exinepollen grainmicrosporogenesis
Being triploid, the fruit contains no seeds, and the male flower does not produce pollen suitable for pollination, prohibiting sexual reproduction.

Banana plantation

banana plantationsbananabanana farming
From the beginning, however, a serious disease was present in the banana plantations of Central America.

Central America

CentralCentral AmericanCentral American Isthmus
From the beginning, however, a serious disease was present in the banana plantations of Central America.

Panama

PanamáRepublic of PanamaPAN
The problem was first diagnosed in Panama after which it was named.

Costa Rica

Costa RicanRepublic of Costa RicaCosta-Rica
Over several decades, the fungus spread from Panama to neighboring countries, moving north through Costa Rica to Guatemala and south into Colombia and Ecuador.

Guatemala

GuatemalanRepublic of GuatemalaGTM
Over several decades, the fungus spread from Panama to neighboring countries, moving north through Costa Rica to Guatemala and south into Colombia and Ecuador.

Ecuador

ECURepublic of EcuadorEcuadorian
Over several decades, the fungus spread from Panama to neighboring countries, moving north through Costa Rica to Guatemala and south into Colombia and Ecuador.

Malaysia

Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
Shortly thereafter, Malaysia entered the banana-growing business.

Rainforest

rain forestrainforestsemergent
Thousands of acres of rain forests and former palm oil plantations were shifted to banana production.

Palm oil

palmoilpalm-oil
Thousands of acres of rain forests and former palm oil plantations were shifted to banana production.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
Although the Cavendish was then thought to be immune, it was immune only to the strain of the fungus that destroyed the Gros Michel.

West Africa

West AfricanWestWestern Africa
To date, it has not reached West Africa and except for quarantine and exclusion, no barrier to its spread have been identified.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Scientists are trying to modify the banana plant to make it resist Panama disease and many other serious banana afflictions ranging from fungal, bacterial, and viral infections to nematodes and beetles.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Scientists are trying to modify the banana plant to make it resist Panama disease and many other serious banana afflictions ranging from fungal, bacterial, and viral infections to nematodes and beetles.