Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreaspancreatic developmentHead of pancreashead of the pancreasexocrineTail of pancreasAnterior margin of pancreasAnterior surface of pancreasBody of pancreas
The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.wikipedia
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Human digestive system

digestive systemdigestivedigestive tract
The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

Endocrine gland

endocrine glandsductless glandendocrine
As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

Glucagon

serum glucagon
As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.

Stomach

gastriccardiafundus
In humans, it is located in the abdomen behind the stomach and functions as a gland.
Lying behind the stomach is the pancreas.

Pancreatic juice

digestive juicespancreatic fluidspancreatic juices
As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.
Pancreatic juice is a liquid secreted by the pancreas, which contains a variety of enzymes, including trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases and amylase.

Pancreatic polypeptide

pancreatic peptidePPY
As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas predominantly in the head of the pancreas.

Pancreatic duct

accessory pancreatic ductDuct of Santorinimain pancreatic duct
As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.
The pancreatic duct, or duct of Wirsung (also, the major pancreatic duct due to the existence of an accessory pancreatic duct), is a duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juice provided from the exocrine pancreas, which aids in digestion.

Abdominal cavity

abdominalabdomenabdominal (peritoneal) cavity
In humans, it is located in the abdomen behind the stomach and functions as a gland.
Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is.

Uncinate process of pancreas

uncinateuncinate processuncinate process of the pancreas
From the back of the head emerges a small uncinate process, which extends to the back of the superior mesenteric vein and ends at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior mesenteric artery passes down in front of the left half across the uncinate process; the superior mesenteric vein runs upward on the right side of the artery and, behind the neck, joins with the lienal vein to form the portal vein.
The uncinate process is a small part of the pancreas.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. The tissues with an endocrine role can be seen under staining as lightly-stained clusters of cells, called pancreatic islets (also called islets of Langerhans). The pancreas is a heterocrine gland, having both an endocrine and a digestive exocrine function.
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

Spleen

splenicsplenetichilum
The longest part of the pancreas, the body, stretches across behind the stomach, and the tail of the pancreas ends adjacent to the spleen.
Below this it is in contact with the tail of the pancreas.

Portal vein

hepatic portal veinportalhepatic portal
The superior mesenteric artery passes down in front of the left half across the uncinate process; the superior mesenteric vein runs upward on the right side of the artery and, behind the neck, joins with the lienal vein to form the portal vein.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.

Superior mesenteric artery

superiorSuperior mesentericcranial mesenteric artery
The pancreas stretches from the inner curvature of the duodenum, where the head surrounds two blood vessels, the superior mesenteric artery, and vein.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
The pancreas is an organ that in humans lies in the upper left part of the abdomen.
Other digestive organs are known as the accessory digestive organs and include the liver, its attached gallbladder, and the pancreas, and these communicate with the rest of the system via various ducts.

Digestive enzyme

digestive enzymespancreatic enzymepancreatic enzymes
This juice contains bicarbonate, which neutralizes acid entering the duodenum from the stomach; and digestive enzymes, which break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in food entering the duodenum from the stomach.

Superior mesenteric vein

veinmesenteric veinsuperior
The superior mesenteric artery passes down in front of the left half across the uncinate process; the superior mesenteric vein runs upward on the right side of the artery and, behind the neck, joins with the lienal vein to form the portal vein. The pancreas stretches from the inner curvature of the duodenum, where the head surrounds two blood vessels, the superior mesenteric artery, and vein.
At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the superior mesenteric vein combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein.

Pancreatic islets

islets of Langerhanspancreatic isletislet cell
The tissues with an endocrine role can be seen under staining as lightly-stained clusters of cells, called pancreatic islets (also called islets of Langerhans).
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.

Duodenum

duodenaldodecadactylumduodenal cap
As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. The pancreas stretches from the inner curvature of the duodenum, where the head surrounds two blood vessels, the superior mesenteric artery, and vein.
These cause the liver and gall bladder to release bile, and the pancreas to release bicarbonate and digestive enzymes such as trypsin, lipase and amylase into the duodenum as they are needed.

Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
Insulin is produced in the pancreas and the Brockmann body (in some fish), and released when any of several stimuli are detected.

Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
Below the body of the pancreas sits some of the small intestine, specifically the last part of the duodenum and the jejunum to which it connects, as well as the suspensory ligament of the duodenum which falls between these two.
Many of the digestive enzymes that act in the small intestine are secreted by the pancreas and liver and enter the small intestine via the pancreatic duct.

List of human endocrine organs and actions

heterocrine gland
The pancreas is a heterocrine gland, having both an endocrine and a digestive exocrine function.

Exocrine gland

exocrineexocrine glandssecretory gland
As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. The pancreas is a heterocrine gland, having both an endocrine and a digestive exocrine function.
The liver and pancreas are both exocrine and endocrine glands; they are exocrine glands because they secrete products—bile and pancreatic juice—into the gastrointestinal tract through a series of ducts, and endocrine because they secrete other substances directly into the bloodstream.

Quadrants and regions of abdomen

right upper quadrantleft lower quadrantright lower quadrant
The pancreas is an organ that in humans lies in the upper left part of the abdomen.