Panel painting

paneloil on paneloil on woodpanelsoil-on-panelwood panelpanel paintingsoil-on-oakwoodpanel portraits
A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together.wikipedia
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Fayum mummy portraits

Faiyum mummy portraitsFayum mummy portraitFayum portrait
The first century BC to third century AD Fayum mummy portraits, preserved in the exceptionally dry conditions of Egypt, provide the bulk of surviving panel painting from the Imperial Roman period – about 900 face or bust portraits survive.
They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world.

Pitsa panels

Pitsa
A series of 6th century BC painted tablets from Pitsa (Greece) represent the oldest surviving Greek panel paintings.
They are the earliest surviving examples of Greek panel painting.

Severan Tondo

Severus Tondo
The Severan Tondo, also from Egypt (about 200AD) is one of the handful of non-funerary Graeco-Roman specimens to survive.
The Severan Tondo or Berlin Tondo from circa AD 200, is one of the few preserved examples of panel painting from Classical Antiquity.

Canvas

canvasescanvas paintingCanvas stretching
Until canvas became the more popular support medium in the 16th century, it was the normal form of support for a painting not on a wall (fresco) or vellum, which was used for miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and paintings for the framing.
Canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting, replacing wooden panels.

Tempera

egg temperaTempera on panelTempera and gold on panel
Encaustic and tempera are the two techniques used in antiquity.
The art technique was known from the classical world, where it appears to have taken over from encaustic painting and was the main medium used for panel painting and illuminated manuscripts in the Byzantine world and Medieval and Early Renaissance Europe.

Peter Paul Rubens

RubensRubenesquePieter Paul Rubens
The young Rubens and many other painters preferred it for the greater precision that could be achieved with a totally solid support, and many of his most important works also used it, even for paintings over four metres long in one dimension.
He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance.

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
A series of 6th century BC painted tablets from Pitsa (Greece) represent the oldest surviving Greek panel paintings.
The most respected form of art, according to authors like Pliny or Pausanias, were individual, mobile paintings on wooden boards, technically described as panel paintings.

Icon

iconsicon paintingreligious icons
Wood has always been the normal support for the Icons of Byzantine art and the later Orthodox traditions, the earliest of which (all in Saint Catherine's Monastery) date from the 5th or 6th centuries, and are the oldest panel paintings which seem to be of the highest contemporary quality.
Although there are earlier records of their use, no panel icons earlier than the few from the 6th century preserved at the Greek Orthodox Saint Catherine's Monastery in Egypt survive, as the other examples in Rome have all been drastically over-painted.

Wood

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A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together.

Transfer of panel paintings

transferred to canvastransferredtransferred from panel
Wood panels, especially if kept with too little humidity, often warp and crack with age, and from the 19th century, when reliable techniques were developed, many have been transferred to canvas or modern board supports.
The practice of conserving an unstable painting on panel by transferring it from its original decayed, worm-eaten, cracked, or distorted wood support to canvas or a new panel has been practised since the 18th century.

Portrait

portraitsportraitistportraiture
The vast majority of Early Netherlandish paintings are on panel, and these include most of the earliest portraits, such as those by Jan van Eyck, and some other secular scenes.
True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and then panel paintings.

Altarpiece

altar-piecealtarpiecesaltar piece
The 13th and 14th centuries in Italy were a great period of panel painting, mostly altarpieces or other religious works.
Retable-type altarpieces are often made up of two or more separate panels created using a technique known as panel painting.

Gesso

gessoedgessoed panelgessos
"Gesso", also known "glue gesso" or "Italian gesso" is a traditional mix of an animal glue binder (usually rabbit-skin glue), chalk, and white pigment, used to coat rigid surfaces such as wooden painting panels as an absorbent primer coat substrate for painting.

Oil painting

Oil on canvasoiloils
By the beginning of the 15th century, oil painting was developed.
Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, and Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel supports ("support" is the technical term for the underlying backing of a painting).

Cennino Cennini

Cennino D'Andrea CenniniCennini
It contains information on pigments, brushes, drawing, panel painting, the art of fresco, painting on fabrics and casting, amongst other techniques and tricks.

Dendrochronology

dendrochronologicaltree ringgrowth rings
Carbon-dating techniques can give an approximate date-range (typically to about a range of about 20 years), and dendrochronology sequences have been developed for the main source areas of timber for panels.
It also gives data on the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in wood found in archaeology or works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings.

Gothic art

GothicGothic stylelate Gothic
Primary media in the Gothic period included sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, fresco and illuminated manuscripts.

Populus

poplarpoplarspoplar tree
Italian paintings used local or sometimes Dalmatian wood, most often poplar, but including chestnut, walnut, oak and other woods.
Poplar was the most common wood used in Italy for panel paintings; the Mona Lisa and most famous early renaissance Italian paintings are on poplar.

Cradling (paintings)

CradlingcradledCradling (art restoration)
Cradling is a process used in the restoration and preservation of paintings on wooden panel.

Medieval art

medievalmedieval paintingMiddle Ages
During this period panel painting for altarpieces, often polyptyches and smaller works became newly important.

Fresco

frescoesfrescosfresco painting
Until canvas became the more popular support medium in the 16th century, it was the normal form of support for a painting not on a wall (fresco) or vellum, which was used for miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and paintings for the framing.

Vellum

vellum parchmentcalfskindrafting paper
Until canvas became the more popular support medium in the 16th century, it was the normal form of support for a painting not on a wall (fresco) or vellum, which was used for miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and paintings for the framing.

Miniature (illuminated manuscript)

miniaturesminiatureminiaturist
Until canvas became the more popular support medium in the 16th century, it was the normal form of support for a painting not on a wall (fresco) or vellum, which was used for miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and paintings for the framing.

Illuminated manuscript

illuminatedilluminated manuscriptsilluminator
Until canvas became the more popular support medium in the 16th century, it was the normal form of support for a painting not on a wall (fresco) or vellum, which was used for miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and paintings for the framing.

Polygnotus

PolygnotosPolygnotos of ThasosPolygnotan
However, for a generation in the second quarter of the fifth-century BC there was a movement, called the "new painting" and led by Polygnotus, for very large painted friezes, apparently painted on wood, decorating the interiors of public buildings with very large and complicated subjects containing numerous figures at least half life-size, and including battle scenes.