Panic disorder

Someone with a panic attack, being reassured by another person.

Mental and behavioral disorder, specifically an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.

- Panic disorder

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Shortness of breath

Uncomfortable feeling of not being able to breathe well enough.

In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety.

Benzodiazepine

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

These properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, panic disorder, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures.

Generalized anxiety disorder

Mental and behavioral disorder, specifically an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about events or activities.

Anxiety by Edvard Munch (1894)
Amygdala (in red) brain structures linked to anxiety disorders

The American Psychiatric Association introduced GAD as a diagnosis in the DSM-III in 1980, when anxiety neurosis was split into GAD and panic disorder.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).

Ribbon diagram of human monoamine oxidase B, from
How RIMAs work and why RIMAs can only minimally increase depression-related neurotransmitters
Skeletal formula of moclobemide, the prototypical RIMA.
Ribbon diagram of a monomer of human MAO-A, with FAD and clorgiline bound, oriented as if attached to the outer membrane of a mitochondrion. From.

They are best known as highly efficacious anti-depressants, as well as effective therapeutic agents for panic disorder and social phobia.

Palpitations

Further characterized by the hard, fast and/or irregular beatings of the heart.

Artistic impression of a woman experiencing syncope, which may be accompanied by heart palpitations

Hyperventilation, hand tingling, and nervousness are common when anxiety or panic disorder is the cause of the palpitations.

Antidepressant

Antidepressants are medications used to treat major depressive disorder, some anxiety disorders, some chronic pain conditions, and to help manage some addictions.

The skeleton structure of the SNRI venlafaxine, a typical example of an antidepressant.
Blister pack of Prozac (fluoxetine), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
The chemical structure of venlafaxine (Effexor), an SNRI
St John's wort
Structural formula of the SSRI sertraline

Panic disorder is relatively treated well with medications compared with other disorders, several classes of antidepressants have shown efficacy for this disorder, however SSRIs and SNRIs are used first-line.

Agoraphobia

Mental and behavioral disorder, Drs; specifically an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives their environment to be unsafe with no easy way to escape.

An ancient agora in Delos, Greece - one of the public spaces after which the condition is named.

Agoraphobia, as described in this manner, is actually a symptom professionals check when making a diagnosis of panic disorder.

Mental disorder

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
frameless
Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Dizziness

Imprecise term that can refer to a sense of disorientation in space, vertigo, or lightheadedness.

Vertigo, the sensation of one's surroundings spinning around them, is a common symptom of dizziness.

Panic disorder

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Psycho-social intervention that aims to reduce symptoms of various mental health conditions, primarily depression and anxiety disorders.

The triangle in the middle represents CBT's tenet that all humans' core beliefs can be summed up in three categories: self, others, future.
John B. Watson

Pivotal to this merging was the successful development of treatments for panic disorder by David M. Clark in the UK and David H. Barlow in the US.