Pantothenic acid

Structure of coenzyme A: 1: 3′-phosphoadenosine. 2: diphosphate, organophosphate anhydride. 3: pantoic acid. 4: β-alanine. 5: cysteamine.
Details of the biosynthetic pathway of CoA synthesis from pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid biosynthesis

Water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient.

- Pantothenic acid

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Vitamin

Organic molecule that is an essential micronutrient which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.

A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.
Jack Drummond's single-paragraph article in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins

Some sources list fourteen vitamins, by including choline, but major health organizations list thirteen: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones).

Acetyl-CoA

Molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reaction
β-Oxidation of fatty acids

Coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a β-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid (B5) through an amide linkage and 3'-phosphorylated ADP.

B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism and synthesis of red blood cells.

A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills

Vitamin Bx: an alternative name for both pABA (see vitamin B10) and pantothenic acid.

Β-Alanine

Naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is attached to the β-carbon (i.e. the carbon two atoms away from the carboxylate group) instead of the more usual α-carbon for alanine (α-alanine).

Comparison of β-alanine (right) with the more customary (chiral) amino acid, L-α-alanine (left)

It is a component of the peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), which itself is a component of coenzyme A.

Coenzyme A

Coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

Structure of coenzyme A: 1: 3′-phosphoadenosine. 2: diphosphate, organophosphate anhydride. 3: pantoic acid. 4: β-alanine. 5: cysteamine.
Details of the biosynthetic pathway of CoA synthesis from pantothenic acid.
Some of the sources that CoA comes from and uses in the cell.

In humans, CoA biosynthesis requires cysteine, pantothenate (vitamin B5), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Nutrient

Substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical (pure) substance: water.

Humans require thirteen vitamins in their diet, most of which are actually groups of related molecules (e.g. vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols): vitamins A, C, D, E, K, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), vitamin B6 (e.g., pyridoxine), biotin (B7), folate (B9), and cobalamin (B12).

Paresthesia

"Tingling" and "Pins and needles" redirect here.

Cell morphology observed in all nerve root schwannomas

Vitamin B5 deficiency

Pantoic acid

Alpha hydroxy acid with the formula HOCH2C2CH(OH)CO2H.

α-, β- and γ-hydroxy acids

The amide of pantoic acid with β-alanine is pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), a component of coenzyme A.

Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (\sNH3+) and carboxylate (\sCO2-) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

Structure of a generic L-amino acid in the "neutral" form needed for defining a systematic name, without implying that this form actually exists in detectable amounts either in aqueous solution or in the solid state.
The 21 proteinogenic α-amino acids found in eukaryotes, grouped according to their side chains' pKa values and charges carried at physiological pH (7.4)
Structure of -proline
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Ionization and Brønsted character of N-terminal amino, C-terminal carboxylate, and side chains of amino acid residues
Composite of titration curves of twenty proteinogenic amino acids grouped by side chain category
Share of amino acid in various human diets and the resulting mix of amino acids in human blood serum. Glutamate and glutamine are the most frequent in food at over 10%, while alanine, glutamine, and glycine are the most common in blood.
The Strecker amino acid synthesis
The condensation of two amino acids to form a dipeptide. The two amino acid residues are linked through a peptide bond
Catabolism of proteinogenic amino acids. Amino acids can be classified according to the properties of their main degradation products: 
 * Glucogenic, with the products having the ability to form glucose by gluconeogenesis
 * Ketogenic, with the products not having the ability to form glucose. These products may still be used for ketogenesis or lipid synthesis.
 * Amino acids catabolized into both glucogenic and ketogenic products.
Composite of titration curves of twenty proteinogenic amino acids grouped by side chain category

A rare exception to the dominance of α-amino acids in biology is the β-amino acid beta alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), which is used in plants and microorganisms in the synthesis of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), a component of coenzyme A.

Panthenol

Bepanthen eye and nose ointment (Germany)
Dexpanthenol

Panthenol (also called pantothenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus a provitamin of B5.