Paphlagonia

ancient PaphlagoniaPaphlagoniansPaphlagonianDadibraKingdom of Paphlagonianamesake region
Paphlagonia (, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.wikipedia
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Bithynia

ancient BithyniaKingdom of BithyniaBithynian
Paphlagonia (, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor.

Pontus (region)

Pontusancient PontusPontos
Paphlagonia (, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
The extent of the region varied through the ages but generally extended from the borders of Colchis (modern western Georgia) until well into Paphlagonia in the west, with varying amounts of hinterland.

Galatia

ancient GalatiaGalatianAsia Minor
Paphlagonia (, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
Galatia was bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, on the east by Pontus and Cappadocia, on the south by Cilicia and Lycaonia, and on the west by Phrygia.

Amasra

District of AmasraAmastrisSesamus
Amastris, a few miles east of the Parthenius river, became important under the rule of the Macedonian monarchs; while Amisus, a colony of Sinope situated a short distance east of the Halys river (and therefore not strictly in Paphlagonia as defined by Strabo), grew to become almost a rival of its parent city.
Situated in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, the original city seems to have been called Sesamus (Greek: Σήσαμος), and it is mentioned by Homer in conjunction with Cytorus.

Samsun

AmisusAmisosSamsun, Turkey
Amastris, a few miles east of the Parthenius river, became important under the rule of the Macedonian monarchs; while Amisus, a colony of Sinope situated a short distance east of the Halys river (and therefore not strictly in Paphlagonia as defined by Strabo), grew to become almost a rival of its parent city.
In Book II, Homer says that the ἐνετοί (Enetoi) inhabited Paphlagonia on the southern coast of the Black Sea in the time of the Trojan War (c.

Pompeiopolis

Pompeiopolis in Paphlagonia
The most considerable towns of the interior were Gangra – in ancient times the capital of the Paphlagonian kings, afterwards called Germanicopolis, situated near the frontier of Galatia – and Pompeiopolis, in the valley of the Amnias river, near extensive mines of the mineral called by Strabo sandarake (red arsenic or arsenic sulfide), largely exported from Sinope.
Pompeiopolis was a Roman city in ancient Paphlagonia, located near Taşköprü, Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

Çankırı

GangraCankiriChankiri
The most considerable towns of the interior were Gangra – in ancient times the capital of the Paphlagonian kings, afterwards called Germanicopolis, situated near the frontier of Galatia – and Pompeiopolis, in the valley of the Amnias river, near extensive mines of the mineral called by Strabo sandarake (red arsenic or arsenic sulfide), largely exported from Sinope.
Α town of Paphlagonia that appears to have been once the capital of Paphlagonia and a princely residence, for it is known from Strabo that Deiotarus Philadelphus (before 31 BC–5/6 AD), the last king of Paphlagonia, resided there.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
Paphlagonia (, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
The northern regions included Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Pontus; to the west were Mysia, Lydia and Caria; and Lycia, Pamphylia and Cilicia belonged to the southern shore.

Eneti

EnetoiEnete
851—857). According to Homer and Livy, a group of Paphlagonians, called the Enetoi in Greek, were expelled from their homeland during a revolution.
The Eneti (, Eneti, Heneti, Enete) was a people that inhabited a region close to Paphlagonia, mentioned by Homer and Strabo.

Veneto

VenetiaVenetianVeneto region
With a group of defeated Trojans under the leadership of the Trojan prince Antenor, they emigrated to the northern end of the Adriatic coast and later merged with indigenous Euganei giving the name Venetia to the area they settled.
According to ancient historians, who perhaps wanted to link Venetic origins to legend of Roman origins in Troy, the Veneti (often called the Palaeoveneti) came from Paphlagonia in Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy (12th century BC), led by prince Antenor, a comrade of Aeneas.

Bartın River

PartheniusParthenius RiverParthenios River
According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river.
The river has its sources on Mount Olgassys, and in its northwestern course formed the boundary between Paphlagonia and Bithynia.

Sinop, Turkey

SinopSinopeBlack Sea
Among these, the flourishing city of Sinope, founded from Miletus about 630 BC, stood pre-eminent. The rulers of that dynasty became masters of the greater part of Paphlagonia as early as the reign of Mithridates Ctistes (302–266 BC), but it was not until 183 BC that Pharnaces reduced the Greek city of Sinope under their control.
Sinop, historically known as Sinope, is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.

Anatolian languages

AnatolianAnatolian languageAnatolian branch
It seems perhaps that they were related to the people of the adjoining country, Cappadocia, who were speakers of one of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European languages.
Palaic, spoken in the north-central Anatolian region of Palā (later Paphlagonia), extinct around the 13th century BC, is known only from fragments of quoted prayers in Old Hittite texts.

Kingdom of Pontus

PontusPonticPontic Empire
However, it continued to be governed by native princes until it was absorbed by the encroaching power of Pontus. From that time, the whole province was incorporated into the kingdom of Pontus until the fall of Mithridates (65 BC).
Mithridates first went to the city of Cimiata in Paphlagonia and later to Amasia in Cappadocia.

Mithridates I of Pontus

Mithridates IMithridatesMithridates I Ctistes
The rulers of that dynasty became masters of the greater part of Paphlagonia as early as the reign of Mithridates Ctistes (302–266 BC), but it was not until 183 BC that Pharnaces reduced the Greek city of Sinope under their control.
Mithridates, however, received from Demetrius Poliorketes timely notice of Antigonus's intentions, and fled with a few followers to Paphlagonia, where he occupied a strong fortress, called Cimiata.

Mithridates VI of Pontus

Mithridates VIMithridatesMithridates VI Eupator
From that time, the whole province was incorporated into the kingdom of Pontus until the fall of Mithridates (65 BC).
He contrived to partition Paphlagonia and Galatia with King Nicomedes III of Bithynia.

Theme (Byzantine district)

themethemathemes
In the 7th century it became part of the theme of Opsikion, and later of the Bucellarian Theme, before being split off c. 820 to form a separate province once again.
It covered northwestern Asia Minor (Bithynia, Paphlagonia and parts of Galatia), and was based at Nicaea.

Paphlagonia (theme)

Paphlagoniaseparate provinceTheme of Paphlagonia
In the 7th century it became part of the theme of Opsikion, and later of the Bucellarian Theme, before being split off c. 820 to form a separate province once again.
The Theme of Paphlagonia was a military-civilian province (thema or theme) of the Byzantine Empire in the namesake region along the northern coast of Anatolia, in modern Turkey.

Artoxares

465 BC - after 419 BC) was a Paphlagonian eunuch, who played a central role during the reigns of Artaxerxes I and Darius II of Persia.

Bucellarian Theme

BucellarianBoukellarionBoukellarioi
In the 7th century it became part of the theme of Opsikion, and later of the Bucellarian Theme, before being split off c. 820 to form a separate province once again.
It was created around the middle of the 8th century, comprising most of the ancient region of Paphlagonia and parts of Galatia and Phrygia.

Opsikion

Opsician ThemeOpsicianOpsikion Theme
In the 7th century it became part of the theme of Opsikion, and later of the Bucellarian Theme, before being split off c. 820 to form a separate province once again.
Thus the Opsician theme was the area where the imperial Opsikion was settled, which encompassed all of north-western Asia Minor (Mysia, Bithynia, parts of Galatia, Lydia and Paphlagonia) from the Dardanelles to the Halys River, with Ancyra as its capital.

Saint Philaretos

Saint Philaretus
Born in Paphlagonia, Philaretos was very rich and belonged to an illustrious local aristocratic family of Byzantine Anatolian magnates.

Pharnaces I of Pontus

Pharnaces IPharnacesPharnakes I
The rulers of that dynasty became masters of the greater part of Paphlagonia as early as the reign of Mithridates Ctistes (302–266 BC), but it was not until 183 BC that Pharnaces reduced the Greek city of Sinope under their control.
It continued, apparently with various interruptions, until the summer of 179 BC, when Pharnaces, finding himself unable to cope with the combined forces of Eumenes II and Ariarathes IV, was compelled to purchase peace with the cession of all his conquests in Galatia and Paphlagonia, with the exception of Sinope.

List of rulers of Paphlagonia

Deiotaros of Paphlagonia
List of rulers of Paphlagonia, an ancient region and Hellenistic kingdom in northwestern Asia Minor.