Paracelsus

ParacelsianParacelsanParacelsiansBombastusTheophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim16th century savant and alchemistIt has been statedParacelcistParacelsian philosophyParacelsism
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim ), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.wikipedia
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Paracelsianism

ParacelsianParacelsianspseudo-Paracelsian
Paracelsianism is the early modern medical movement inspired by the study of his works.
Paracelsianism (also Paracelsism; German Paracelsismus) was an early modern medical movement based on the theories and therapies of Paracelsus.

Einsiedeln

Einsiedeln, Switzerlandtown of Einsiedelndistrict of Einsiedeln
Paracelsus was born in Egg, a village close to the Etzel Pass in Einsiedeln, Schwyz.
Einsiedeln is the birthplace of Paracelsus, a Renaissance physician and alchemist who is credited with first naming zinc.

Toxicology

toxicologisttoxicologicaltoxicologists
He is credited as the "father of toxicology".
Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493–1541) (also referred to as Paracelsus, from his belief that his studies were above or beyond the work of Celsus – a Roman physician from the first century) is also considered "the father" of toxicology.

Johannes Trithemius

TrithemiusAbbot TrithemiusJohann Tritheim
He specifically accounts for being tutored by Johannes Trithemius, abbot of Sponheim.
His students included Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa and Paracelsus.

University of Basel

BaselBasel UniversityUniversity of Basle
At the age of 16 he started studying medicine at the University of Basel, later moving to Vienna.
In its over 500-year history the university has been home to Erasmus of Rotterdam, Paracelsus, Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, Jacob Burckhardt, Friedrich Nietzsche, Tadeusz Reichstein, Karl Jaspers, Carl Gustav Jung, Karl Barth and Jeanne Hersch.

Basel

Basel, SwitzerlandBasleBâle
But soon after he was called to Basel to the sickbed of printer Johann Frobenius, reportedly curing him.
In 1459, Pope Pius II endowed the University of Basel, where such notables as Erasmus of Rotterdam and Paracelsus later taught.

St. Moritz

St MoritzSaint MoritzSt. Moritz, Switzerland
He passed Sterzing in 1534, moving on to Meran, Veltlin, and St. Moritz, which he praised for its healing springs.
In 1535, Paracelsus, the great practitioner of nature cures, spent some time in St. Moritz.

Bombast von Hohenheim

von HohenheimEgilof von Hohenheim
1534) was a chemist and physician, an illegitimate descendant of the Swabian noble family Bombast von Hohenheim.
1534), the father of Paracelsus (Theophrastus von Hohenheim) (1493–1541).

Théodore de Mayerne

Theodore de MayerneTheodore MayerneSir Theodore Mayerne
Later, Théodore de Mayerne repeated Paracelsus’s experiment in 1650 and found that the gas was flammable.
Sir Théodore Turquet de Mayerne (28 September 1573 – 22 March 1655) was a Genevan-born physician who treated kings of France and England and advanced the theories of Paracelsus.

Guaiacum

guaiacguayacánguayacan
Paracelsus vigorously attacked the treatment with guaiac wood as useless, a scam perpetrated by the Fugger of Augsburg as the main importers of the wood in two publications on the topic.
Paracelsus, the famous if controversial Swiss physician, disputed the effectiveness of this treatment and was censured for his criticism.

Zinc

ZnZn 2+ zinc alloy
He was probably the first to give the element zinc (zincum) its modern name, in about 1526, likely based on the sharp pointed appearance of its crystals after smelting (zinke translating to "pointed" in German).
The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth).

Elemental

elementalselemental spiritsBeings of the Elements
Paracelsus also described four elemental beings, each corresponding to one of the four elements: Salamanders, which correspond to fire; Gnomes, corresponding to earth; Undines, corresponding to water; and Sylphs, corresponding to air.
An elemental is a mythic being that is described in occult and alchemical works from around the time of the European Renaissance, and particularly elaborated in the 16th century works of Paracelsus.

Salzburg

Salzburg, AustriaIuvavumSalzbourg
He settled in Salzburg in 1524 but had to leave in the following year due to his support of the German Peasants' War.

Gnome

gnomesgarden gnomegnomish
Paracelsus also described four elemental beings, each corresponding to one of the four elements: Salamanders, which correspond to fire; Gnomes, corresponding to earth; Undines, corresponding to water; and Sylphs, corresponding to air.
A gnome is a diminutive spirit in Renaissance magic and alchemy, first introduced by Paracelsus in the 16th century and later adopted by more recent authors including those of modern fantasy literature.

University of Ferrara

FerraraFerrara UniversityUniversità di Ferrara
He gained his doctorate degree from the University of Ferrara in 1515 or 1516.

Sylph

sylphssylphidZylpheeza
Paracelsus also described four elemental beings, each corresponding to one of the four elements: Salamanders, which correspond to fire; Gnomes, corresponding to earth; Undines, corresponding to water; and Sylphs, corresponding to air.
The term originates in the 16th-century works of Paracelsus, who describes sylphs as (invisible) beings of the air, his elementals of air.

Undine

OndineOndinesUndines
Paracelsus also described four elemental beings, each corresponding to one of the four elements: Salamanders, which correspond to fire; Gnomes, corresponding to earth; Undines, corresponding to water; and Sylphs, corresponding to air.
Undines (or ondines) are a category of imaginary elemental beings associated with water, first named in the alchemical writings of Paracelsus.

Doctrine of signatures

Signatura Rerum
An example of this correspondence is the doctrine of signatures used to identify curative powers of plants.
Paracelsus (1493–1541) developed the concept, writing that "Nature marks each growth ... according to its curative benefit", and it was followed by Giambattista della Porta in his Phytognomonica (1588).

Opodeldoc

Paracelsus invented, or at least named a sort of liniment, opodeldoc, a mixture of soap in alcohol, to which camphor and sometimes a number of herbal essences, most notably wormwood, were added.
Opodeldoc is a medical plaster or liniment invented, or at least named, by the German Renaissance physician Paracelsus in the 1500s.

Laudanum

tincture of opiumlaudanineopium tincture
Paracelsus did not leave a complete recipe, and the known ingredients differ considerably from 17th-century laudanum.
Paracelsus, a 16th-century Swiss-German alchemist, experimented with various opium concoctions, and recommended opium for reducing pain.

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
In a display of his contempt for conventional medicine, Paracelsus publicly burned editions of the works of Galen and Avicenna.
The more extreme liberal movements began to challenge the role of authority in medicine, as exemplified by Paracelsus' symbolically burning the works of Avicenna and Galen at his medical school in Basle.

Salamanders in folklore

salamandersalamandersSalamander (legendary creature)
Paracelsus also described four elemental beings, each corresponding to one of the four elements: Salamanders, which correspond to fire; Gnomes, corresponding to earth; Undines, corresponding to water; and Sylphs, corresponding to air.
A frequently-cited illustration of a salamander is presented in an influential 20th-century occult work by Manly P. Hall, Secret Teachings of All Ages, in which it is attributed to Paracelsus.

Marsilio Ficino

FicinoMarsilius FicinusMarsiglio Ficino
As a physician of the early 16th century, Paracelsus held a natural affinity with the Hermetic, Neoplatonic, and Pythagorean philosophies central to the Renaissance, a world-view exemplified by Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola.
His medical works exerted considerable influence on Renaissance physicians such as Paracelsus, with whom he shared the perception on the unity of the micro- and macrocosmos, and their interactions, through somatic and psychological manifestations, with the aim to investigate their signatures to cure diseases.

Rosicrucianism

RosicrucianRosicruciansRosicrucian Manifestos
Paracelsus also had a substantial impact as a prophet or diviner, his "Prognostications" being studied by Rosicrucians in the 1700s.
The writer also claimed the brotherhood possessed a book that resembled the works of Paracelsus.

The dose makes the poison

as with absolutely all other substancesconcentratedOnly the dose makes a thing not a poison
(Sola dosis facit venenum "Only the dose makes the poison")
It is credited to Paracelsus who expressed the classic toxicology maxim "All things are poison, and nothing is without poison, the dosage alone makes it so a thing is not a poison."