Paraguay

ParaguayanRepublic of ParaguayEstablishedParaguayansCulture of ParaguayPARPYParaguyanPRYAdministrative divisions of Paraguay
Paraguay (Paraguái, ), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a country in South America.wikipedia
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South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
Paraguay (Paraguái, ), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a country in South America. Although it is one of only two landlocked countries in South America (the other is Bolivia), the country has coasts, beaches and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway.
It includes twelve sovereign states (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela), a part of France (French Guiana), and a non-sovereign area (the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory though this is disputed by Argentina).

Bolivia

BOLBolivianPlurinational State of Bolivia
It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru.

Paraná River

ParanáParana RiverRío Paraná
Although it is one of only two landlocked countries in South America (the other is Bolivia), the country has coasts, beaches and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway. Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, and finally up the Paraguay River.
The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some 4880 km.

Brazil

BRABrasilBrazilian
It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama".

Conquistador

conquistadorsconquistadoresSpanish conquistadors
Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, and finally up the Paraguay River.
In Colombia, Bolivia, and Argentina conquistadors from Peru linked up with other conquistadors arriving more directly from the Caribbean and Río de la Plata-Paraguay respectively.

Paraguayan War

War of the Triple AllianceTriple AllianceTriple Alliance War
This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870, between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.

Governorate of the Río de la Plata

Río de la PlataRio de la PlataGovernor of the Río de la Plata
In 1537, they established the city of Asunción, which was the first capital of the Governorate of Paraguay and Río de la Plata.
After 1617, Paraguay was separated under a separate administration (Asunción had been the capital of the governorate since Juan de Ayolas.)

Chaco War

Chaco Armistice DayGran Chaco WarLake Pitiantuta
In the 20th century, Paraguay faced another major international conflict – the Chaco War – against Bolivia, from which the Paraguayans emerged victorious.
The Chaco War (1932–1935; Guerra del Chaco, Cháko Ñorairõ ) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region (known in Spanish as Chaco Boreal) of South America, which was thought to be rich in oil.

Jesuit reduction

Jesuit ReductionsreductionsJesuit missions
Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions, mainly during the 17th century.
The Jesuit reductions were Christian missions that extended successfully in an area straddling the borders of present-day Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina (the triple frontera) amongst the Guarani peoples.

Alfredo Stroessner

StroessnerAlfredo Stroessner MattiaudaAlfredo Strossner
Afterwards, the country entered a period of military dictatorships, ending with the 35 year regime of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted until he was toppled in 1989 by an internal military coup.
Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda (November 3, 1912 – August 16, 2006) was a Paraguayan Army officer who served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989.

Treaty of the Triple Alliance

Triple AllianceAlliedAllies
This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
The Treaty of the Triple Alliance was a treaty of alliance between the Empire of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay against Paraguay.

Luque

Luque, Paraguay
Also, the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
Luque is a city in Central Department of Paraguay, part of the Gran Asunción metropolitan area.

Mercosur

MercosulSouthern Cone Common MarketSouthern Common Market
With around seven million inhabitants, Paraguay is a founding member of Mercosur, an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Lima Group.
Its full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

CONMEBOL

South AmericaCONMEBOL (South America)Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol
Also, the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
The oldest continental confederation in the world, its headquarters are located in Luque, Paraguay, near Asunción.

Gran Chaco

ChacoChaco regionDry Chaco
Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru peoples were the most prominent.
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semiarid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina, and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region.

Society of Jesus

JesuitJesuitsS.J.
Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions, mainly during the 17th century.
Second, they sent out missionaries across the globe to evangelize those peoples who had not yet heard the Gospel, founding missions in widely diverse regions such as modern-day Paraguay, Japan, Ontario, and Ethiopia.

Juan de Salazar de Espinosa

Juan de Salazar y EspinosaJuan de SalazarJuan de Salazar de Espinoza
The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537.
Juan de Salazar y Espinosa (1508–1560) was a Spanish explorer, founder of the Paraguayan city of Asunción.

Payaguá

PayaguaPayaguá peopleAgaces
One of the most common explanations is that it means "water of the Payagua (a native tribe)".
The Payaguá people, also called Evueví and Evebe, were an ethnic group of the Guaycuru peoples in the Northern Chaco of Paraguay.

José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia

Gaspar Rodríguez de FranciaJose Gaspar Rodriguez de FranciaDr. Francia
Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with very little outside contact or influence.
José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco (6 January 1766 – 20 September 1840) was a Paraguayan lawyer and politician, and the first dictator of Paraguay following its independence from the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.

Francisco Solano López

Francisco Solano LopezSolano LopezMarshall López
After López's death in 1862, power was transferred to his eldest son, Francisco Solano López.
Francisco Solano López Carrillo (24 July 1827 – 1 March 1870) was President of Paraguay from 1862 until his death in 1870.

Carlos Antonio López

Carlos Antonio LopezCarlos A. LópezCarlos Antonio López Ynsfrán
After Francia's death in 1840, Paraguay was ruled by various military officers under a new junta, until Carlos Antonio López (allegedly Rodríguez de Francia's nephew) came to power in 1841.
Carlos Antonio López Ynsfrán (November 4, 1792 – September 10, 1862) served as leader of Paraguay from 1841 to 1862.

Fortress of Humaitá

fortifications at HumaitáHumaitátorpedoes
Militarily, Carlos Antonio López modernized and expanded industry and the Paraguayan Army and greatly strengthened the strategic defenses of Paraguay by developing the Fortress of Humaitá.
The Fortress of Humaitá (1854–68), known metaphorically as the Gibraltar of South America, was a Paraguayan military installation near the mouth of the River Paraguay.

Río de la Plata

River PlateRio de la PlataLa Plata
Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, and finally up the Paraguay River.
It includes areas of southeastern Bolivia, southern and central Brazil, the entire country of Paraguay, most of Uruguay, and northern Argentina.

Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south.

Ybycuí

Ybycui
The Ybycuí foundry, completed in 1850, manufactured cannons, mortars and bullets of all calibers.
Ybycuí is a Paraguayan rural community of the department of Paraguari, located 120 km away from Asunción, and 40 km from the Ruta una (Route 1).