No Results Found!
35 Related Articles

Datu

datuschiefdata
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.
In such cases, datus of these barangays would then select the most senior or most respected among them to serve as what scolars call a "paramount leader, or "paramount datu." The titles used by such paramount datu changed from case to case, but some of the most prominent examples were: Sultan in the most Islamized areas of Mindanao; Lakan among the Tagalog people; Thimuay among the Subanen people; Rajah in polities which traded extensively with Indonesia and Malaysia; or simply Datu in some areas of Mindanao and the Visayas.

Rajahnate of Maynila

MaynilaManilaSelurong
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.
Historical texts indicate that it was led by paramount rulers who used the title "Rajah", but the introduction of hispanized literary forms have led to it sometimes being mislabeled as the "Kingdom of Maynila".

Tondo (historical polity)

TondoTondo DynastyTundun
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.
These Datus in turn recognised the leadership of the most senior among them as a sort of "Paramount datu" called a Lakan over the Bayan.

Barangay state

barangayancient barangaybarangays
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu. Different cultures of the Philippine archipelago used different titles to refer to the most senior datu, or leader, of the Bayan or Barangay state.

Lakan

Lakambinilakanslakán
In Tagalog communities, the equivalent title was Lakan.
In early Philippine history, the rank of Lakan denoted a "paramount ruler" (or more specifically, "paramount datu") of one of the large coastal barangays (known as a "bayan") on the central and southern regions of the island of Luzon.

Lakandula

Lakan DulaBunao Lakan DulaLakan
Bunao Lakan Dula
Lakan Dula (Baybayin:, Abecedario: Lácandólá) was the regnal name of the last Lakan (paramount ruler or paramount datu) of the pre-colonial Indianized Tondo polity when the Spaniards first conquered the lands of the Pasig River delta in the Philippines, in the 1570s.

Rajah Sulayman

SulaymanRajah Sulaiman IIIRajah Sulayman Park
Rajah Sulayman
Rajah Sulayman, sometimes referred to as Sulayman III (Sanskrit: स्ललैअह्, Baybayin:, Abecedario: Suláimán) (1558–1575), was the Rajah or paramount ruler of the Rajahnate of Maynila, a fortified Tagalog polity on the southern half of the Pasig River delta, by the time Spanish colonizers arrived in the early 1570s.

Bayan (settlement)

Bayan
Different cultures of the Philippine archipelago used different titles to refer to the most senior datu, or leader, of the Bayan or Barangay state.
Paramount rulers in early Philippine history

Rajah Matanda

MatandaRajah AcheRaja Matanda
Rajah Ache
Some time between 1521 and 1570, Ache succeeded his mother and became Paramount datu over Maynila, taking on the title of Rajah.

Thimuay Imbing

Thimuay Imbing
Paramount rulers in early Philippine history - for an explanation of the rank "Thimuan Labi"

History of the Philippines (900–1521)

early Philippine historypre-colonialpre-Hispanic
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Caboloan

PangasinanWangdom of PangasinanHuangdom of Pangasinan
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Rajahnate of Cebu

CebuRajah of CebuRajahnates
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Kedatuan of Dapitan

Bohol
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Rajahnate of Butuan

ButuanButuanonsDewata
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Sultanate of Maguindanao

MindanaoMaguindanaoSultan of Maguindanao
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Sultanate of Sulu

SuluSultan of SuluSulu Sultanate
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Sultan

sultanateSulṭānsultans
In Muslim polities such as Sulu and Cotabato, the Paramount ruler was called a Sultan.

Raja

rajahRaorājan
In communities which historically had strong political or trade connections with Indianized polities in Indonesia and Malaysia, the Paramount Ruler was called a Rajah.

Subanon people

SubanonSubanenSubanons
Among the Subanon people of the Zamboanga Peninsula, a settlement's Datus answer to a Thimuay, and some Thimuays are sometimes additionally referred to as Thimuay Labi, or as Sulotan in more Islamized Subanon communities.

Zamboanga Peninsula (landmass)

Zamboanga PeninsulaZamboangapeninsula of Zamboanga
Among the Subanon people of the Zamboanga Peninsula, a settlement's Datus answer to a Thimuay, and some Thimuays are sometimes additionally referred to as Thimuay Labi, or as Sulotan in more Islamized Subanon communities.

F. Landa Jocano

Felipe Landa Jocano
For example, F. Landa Jocano, in his seminal work "Filipino Prehistory:Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage", notes: ''"Even if different Barangays entered into alliances with one another, there was no sovereign datu over them. Each datu ruled his barangay independently. The alliances were limited to mutual protection and assistance in times of need. It did not entail permanent allegiance. The grouping was based on consensus. Whoever was chosen by the groups as their leader exercised leadership and asserted authority over them. It was a living democracy...Barangay alliances were loosely defined. These were often based on kinship and marriage. Each Barangay remained independent and enjoyed freedom from external control. That was why Lapulapu resisted the attempt of Magellan to make him acknowledge the lordship of Humabon. The same was true of the other datus who resisted coercive efforts of the Spaniards to make them subservient to other Datus."''

Muhammad Kudarat

Sultan KudaratSultan Muhammad Dipatuan KudaratMuhammad Dipatuan Kudarat
* Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat