Parapsychology

parapsychologistparapsychologicalpsychical researchpsychical researcherpsiparapsychologistspsychic phenomenapsychicpsychic researcherpsychical
Parapsychology is the study of alleged psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, as in telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, a.k.a. telekinesis, and psychometry) and other paranormal claims, for example related to near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, etc.wikipedia
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Psychokinesis

telekinesistelekineticpsychokinetic
Parapsychology is the study of alleged psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, as in telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, a.k.a. telekinesis, and psychometry) and other paranormal claims, for example related to near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, etc. It is considered to be pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists, in part because, in addition to a lack of replicable empirical evidence, parapsychological claims simply cannot be true "unless the rest of science isn't." The Parapsychological Association divides psi into two main categories: psi-gamma for extrasensory perception and psi-kappa for psychokinesis.
The American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine coined the term extra-sensory perception to describe receiving information paranormally from an external source.

Precognition

precognitivepremonitionprescience
Parapsychology is the study of alleged psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, as in telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, a.k.a. telekinesis, and psychometry) and other paranormal claims, for example related to near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, etc. It is considered to be pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists, in part because, in addition to a lack of replicable empirical evidence, parapsychological claims simply cannot be true "unless the rest of science isn't."
Despite the lack of scientific evidence, many people still believe it to be real; it is still widely reported and remains a topic of research and discussion within the parapsychology community.

Clairvoyance

clairvoyantseerclairvoyants
Parapsychology is the study of alleged psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, as in telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, a.k.a. telekinesis, and psychometry) and other paranormal claims, for example related to near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, etc. It is considered to be pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists, in part because, in addition to a lack of replicable empirical evidence, parapsychological claims simply cannot be true "unless the rest of science isn't."
Parapsychology explores this possibility, but the existence of the paranormal is not accepted by the scientific community.

Joseph Banks Rhine

J. B. RhineJ.B. RhineJoseph B. Rhine
It was adopted by J. B. Rhine in the 1930s as a replacement for the term psychical research in order to indicate a significant shift toward experimental methodology and academic discipline. Under the guidance of psychologist William McDougall, and with the help of others in the department—including psychologists Karl Zener, Joseph B. Rhine, and Louisa E. Rhine—laboratory ESP experiments using volunteer subjects from the undergraduate student body began.
B. Rhine', was an American botanist who founded parapsychology as a branch of psychology, founding the parapsychology lab at Duke University, the Journal of Parapsychology'', the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, and the Parapsychological Association.

Parapsychological Association

The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
The Parapsychological Association divides psi into two main categories: psi-gamma for extrasensory perception and psi-kappa for psychokinesis.
The Parapsychological Association (PA) was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by Joseph B. Rhine.

Bertold Wiesner

Berthold P. WiesnerBertold P. WiesnerBertold Paul Wiesner
The term was coined by biologist Berthold P. Wiesner, and first used by psychologist Robert Thouless in a 1942 article published in the British Journal of Psychology.
Dr Bertold Paul Wiesner FRSE (1901–1972) was an Austrian Jewish physiologist noted firstly for coining the term 'Psi' to denote parapsychological phenomena; secondly for his contribution to research into human fertility and the diagnosis of pregnancy; and thirdly for being biological father to an estimated 600 offspring by anonymously donating sperm used by his wife the obstetrician Mary Barton to perform artificial insemination on women at her private practice in the Harley Street area of London, London, England.

Robert H. Thouless

Robert ThoulessR. H. ThoulessRobert Henry Thouless
The term was coined by biologist Berthold P. Wiesner, and first used by psychologist Robert Thouless in a 1942 article published in the British Journal of Psychology.
Robert Henry Thouless (15 July 1894 – 25 September 1984) was a British psychologist and parapsychologist.

Psychic

psychicspsychic phenomenapsychical
Parapsychology is the study of alleged psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, as in telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, a.k.a. telekinesis, and psychometry) and other paranormal claims, for example related to near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, etc. It is considered to be pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists, in part because, in addition to a lack of replicable empirical evidence, parapsychological claims simply cannot be true "unless the rest of science isn't." In popular culture, "psi" has become more and more synonymous with special psychic, mental, and "psionic" abilities and powers.
In 1988 the U.S. National Academy of Sciences gave a report on the subject and concluded there is "no scientific justification from research conducted over a period of 130 years for the existence of parapsychological phenomena".

Agénor de Gasparin

Agenor de GasparinAgénor GasparinCount de Gasparin
Agenor de Gasparin conducted early experiments into table-tipping.
He was also an early psychical researcher known for conducting experiments into table-tipping.

Apparitional experience

apparitionapparitionsapparitional experiences
Parapsychology is the study of alleged psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, as in telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, a.k.a. telekinesis, and psychometry) and other paranormal claims, for example related to near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, etc. It is considered to be pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists, in part because, in addition to a lack of replicable empirical evidence, parapsychological claims simply cannot be true "unless the rest of science isn't." Areas of study included telepathy, hypnotism, Reichenbach's phenomena, apparitions, hauntings, and the physical aspects of Spiritualism such as table-tilting, materialization and apportation.
In parapsychology, an apparitional experience is an anomalous experience characterized by the apparent perception of either a living being or an inanimate object without there being any material stimulus for such a perception.

Frederic W. H. Myers

Frederic William Henry MyersF. W. H. MyersFrederic Myers
Among the first important works was the two-volume publication in 1886, Phantasms of the Living which was largely criticized by scholars.
Myers' work on psychical research and his ideas about a "subliminal self" were influential in his time, but have not been accepted by the scientific community.

Apport (paranormal)

apportapportsapportation
Areas of study included telepathy, hypnotism, Reichenbach's phenomena, apparitions, hauntings, and the physical aspects of Spiritualism such as table-tilting, materialization and apportation.
In parapsychology and spiritualism, an apport is the alleged paranormal transference of an article from one place to another, or an appearance of an article from an unknown source that is often associated with poltergeist activity or séances.

Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner

ZöllnerJ. K. F. ZöllnerJohann K. F. Zöllner
The German astrophysicist Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner tested the medium Henry Slade in 1877.
He was also an early psychical investigator.

American Society for Psychical Research

Journal of the American Society for Psychical ResearchBoston Society for Psychical ResearchThe Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
Largely due to the support of psychologist William James, the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) opened its doors in Boston in 1885, moving to New York City in 1905 under the leadership of James H. Hyslop.
The American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) is the oldest psychical research organization in the United States dedicated to parapsychology.

Walter Franklin Prince

Dr. Walter F. PrincePrince, Walter FranklinWalter F. Prince
Notable cases investigated by Walter Franklin Prince of the ASPR in the early 20th century included Pierre L. O. A. Keeler, the Great Amherst Mystery and Patience Worth.
Walter Franklin Prince (22 April 1863 – 7 August 1934) was an American parapsychologist and founder of the Boston Society for Psychical Research in Boston.

Psionics

psionicpsionicallypsionic powers
In popular culture, "psi" has become more and more synonymous with special psychic, mental, and "psionic" abilities and powers.
The word "psionics" began as, and always remained, a term of art within the science fiction community and — despite the promotional efforts of editor John W. Campbell, Jr — it never achieved general currency, even among academic parapsychologists.

James H. Hyslop

James Hyslop
Largely due to the support of psychologist William James, the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) opened its doors in Boston in 1885, moving to New York City in 1905 under the leadership of James H. Hyslop.
James Hervey Hyslop, Ph.D, LL.D, (August 18, 1854 – June 17, 1920) was a professor of ethics and logic at Columbia University, a psychologist, and a psychical researcher.

Paranormal

paranormal phenomenaparanormal activityparanormal research
Parapsychology is the study of alleged psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, as in telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, a.k.a. telekinesis, and psychometry) and other paranormal claims, for example related to near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, etc. It is considered to be pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists, in part because, in addition to a lack of replicable empirical evidence, parapsychological claims simply cannot be true "unless the rest of science isn't."
Experimental investigation of the paranormal has been conducted by parapsychologists.

Eileen J. Garrett

Eileen GarrettCreative Age Press
Irish medium and parapsychologist, Eileen J. Garrett, was tested by Rhine at Duke University in 1933 with Zener cards.
Eileen Jeanette Vancho Lyttle Garrett (17 March 1893 – 15 September 1970) was an Irish medium and parapsychologist.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
The term originates from the παρά meaning "alongside", and psychology.
Early practitioners of experimental psychology distinguished themselves from parapsychology, which in the late nineteenth century enjoyed great popularity (including the interest of scholars such as William James), and indeed constituted the bulk of what people called "psychology".

Rufus Osgood Mason

Early membership included philosophers, scholars, scientists, educators and politicians, such as Henry Sidgwick, Arthur Balfour, William Crookes, Rufus Osgood Mason and Nobel Laureate Charles Richet.
Rufus Osgood Mason (January 22, 1830, in Sullivan, New Hampshire – May 11, 1903, in New York City, New York) was a physician, surgeon, and teacher and an early researcher in parapsychology and hypnotherapy.

Louisa E. Rhine

Louisa Ella RhineLouisa Rhine
Under the guidance of psychologist William McDougall, and with the help of others in the department—including psychologists Karl Zener, Joseph B. Rhine, and Louisa E. Rhine—laboratory ESP experiments using volunteer subjects from the undergraduate student body began.
Louisa Ella Rhine (née Weckesser November 9, 1891 – March 17, 1983) was an American doctor of botany and is known for her work in parapsychology.

Sensory leakage

stimulus leakage
Rhine's experiments were discredited due to the discovery that sensory leakage or cheating could account for all his results such as the subject being able to read the symbols from the back of the cards and being able to see and hear the experimenter to note subtle clues.
Sensory leakage is a term used to refer to information that transferred to a person by conventional means (other than Psi) during an experiment into Psi.

Samuel Soal

Blanche CooperS. G. SoalS.G. Soal
The parapsychologist Samuel Soal and his colleagues tested Garrett in May 1937.
G. Soal''' — was a British mathematician and parapsychologist.

John Edgar Coover

John E. Coover
The effort was headed by psychologist John Edgar Coover, and was supported by funds donated by Thomas Welton Stanford, brother of the university's founder.
E. Coover''' was an American psychologist and parapsychologist known for his experiments into extrasensory perception.