Parasitoid

parasitoidskoinobiontendoparasitoidectoparasitoididiobiontendoparasitoidsparasiticectoparasitoidsegg parasitoidsentomophagous
A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.wikipedia
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Predation

predatorypredatorprey
Parasitoidism is one of six major evolutionary strategies within parasitism, distinguished by the fatal prognosis for the host, which makes the strategy close to predation.
It is one of a family of common feeding behaviours that includes parasitism and micropredation (which usually do not kill the host) and parasitoidism (which always does, eventually).

Parasitism

parasiteparasiticparasites
Parasitoidism is one of six major evolutionary strategies within parasitism, distinguished by the fatal prognosis for the host, which makes the strategy close to predation. Parasitoidism, in the view of R. Poulin and H. S. Randhawa, is one of six main evolutionary strategies within parasitism, the others being parasitic castrator, directly transmitted parasite, trophically transmitted parasite, vector-transmitted parasite, and micropredator.
There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism (by contact), trophically transmitted parasitism (by being eaten), vector-transmitted parasitism, parasitoidism, and micropredation.

Host (biology)

hostintermediate hosthosts
A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.
In contrast, a parasitoid spends a large part of its life within or on a single host, ultimately causing the host's death, with some of the strategies involved verging on predation.

Ichneumonidae

ichneumonidichneumonichneumon wasp
Most are in the Hymenoptera, where the ichneumons and many other parasitoid wasps are highly specialised for a parasitoidal way of life.
The Ichneumonidae are a parasitoid wasp family within the order Hymenoptera.

Parasitoid wasp

parasitic waspparasitoid waspsparasitic wasps
Most are in the Hymenoptera, where the ichneumons and many other parasitoid wasps are highly specialised for a parasitoidal way of life.
As parasitoids, they lay their eggs on or in the bodies of other arthropods, sooner or later causing the death of these hosts.

Biological pest control

biological controlbiocontrolbiological control agent
Some of these, usually but not only wasps, are used in biological pest control.
Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors.

Hyperparasite

hyperparasitoidhyperparasitismhyperparasitoids
Hosts include other parasitoids, resulting in hyperparasitism; in the case of oak galls, up to five levels of parasitism are possible.
A hyperparasite is a parasite whose host, often an insect, is also a parasite, often specifically a parasitoid.

Glyptapanteles

G. liparidisGlyptapanteles demeterGlyptapanteles liparidis
Among the parasitic wasps, Glyptapanteles modifies the behaviour of its host caterpillar to defend the pupae of the wasps after they emerge from the caterpillar's body.
Glyptapanteles is a genus of endoparasitoid wasps found in Central and North America and New Zealand.

Apocephalus borealis

Zombie fly
The phorid fly Apocephalus borealis oviposits into the abdomen of its hosts, including honey bees, causing them to abandon their nest, flying from it at night and soon dying, allowing the next generation of flies to emerge outside the hive.
Apocephalus borealis is a species of North American parasitoid phorid fly that attacks bumblebees, honey bees, and paper wasps.

Parasitic castration

parasitic castratorcastratingcastration
Parasitoidism, in the view of R. Poulin and H. S. Randhawa, is one of six main evolutionary strategies within parasitism, the others being parasitic castrator, directly transmitted parasite, trophically transmitted parasite, vector-transmitted parasite, and micropredator.
The parasitic castration strategy, which results in the reproductive death of the host, can be compared with the parasitoid strategy, which results in the host's death.

Chrysidoidea

chrysidoid
The parasitoid wasps include some 25,000 Ichneumonoidea, 22,000 Chalcidoidea, 5,500 Vespoidea, 4,000 Platygastroidea, 3,000 Chrysidoidea, 2,300 Cynipoidea, and many smaller families.
The superfamily Chrysidoidea is a very large cosmopolitan group (some 6,000 described species, and many more undescribed), including many parasitoid or cleptoparasitic wasps.

Bombyliidae

bee flybee fliesbee-flies
The true flies (Diptera) include several families of parasitoids, the largest of which is the Tachinidae (some 9,200 species ), followed by the Bombyliidae (some 4,500 species ), along with the Pipunculidae and the Conopidae, which includes parasitoidal genera such as Stylogaster.
Larvae generally are parasitoids of other insects.

Insect

Insectainsectsbugs
Parasitoids are found in a variety of taxa across the endopterygote insects, whose complete metamorphosis may have pre-adapted them for a split lifestyle, with parasitoid larvae and freeliving adults.
Insects then have a variety of defense strategies to avoid being attacked by predators or parasitoids.

Lepidoptera

lepidopteranbutterflies and mothslepidopterans
About 10% of described insects are parasitoids, in the orders Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, Strepsiptera, and Trichoptera.
Wiggling may also help to deter parasitoid wasps from laying eggs on the pupa.

Hymenoptera

hymenopteranhymenopteransbees and wasps
Most are in the Hymenoptera, where the ichneumons and many other parasitoid wasps are highly specialised for a parasitoidal way of life. About 10% of described insects are parasitoids, in the orders Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, Strepsiptera, and Trichoptera.
A huge number of species are parasitoids as larvae.

Cynipoidea

cynipoid
The parasitoid wasps include some 25,000 Ichneumonoidea, 22,000 Chalcidoidea, 5,500 Vespoidea, 4,000 Platygastroidea, 3,000 Chrysidoidea, 2,300 Cynipoidea, and many smaller families.
The most familiar members of the group are phytophagous, especially as gall-formers, though the actual majority of included species are parasitoids or hyperparasitoids.

Tachinidae

tachinid fliestachinidtachinid fly
The true flies (Diptera) include several families of parasitoids, the largest of which is the Tachinidae (some 9,200 species ), followed by the Bombyliidae (some 4,500 species ), along with the Pipunculidae and the Conopidae, which includes parasitoidal genera such as Stylogaster.
Larvae (maggots) of most members of this family are parasitoids (developing inside a living host, ultimately killing it).

Protelean

Other families of flies include some protelean species.
Protelean organisms are widely regarded as a special class of parasites, often referred to as parasitoids.

Pipunculidae

big-headed fliesbig-headed flypipunculid
The true flies (Diptera) include several families of parasitoids, the largest of which is the Tachinidae (some 9,200 species ), followed by the Bombyliidae (some 4,500 species ), along with the Pipunculidae and the Conopidae, which includes parasitoidal genera such as Stylogaster.
The larvae of Pipunculidae develop as parasitoids almost exclusively in Auchenorrhyncha, the exception being the genus

Ripiphoridae

wedge-shaped beetleRhipiphoridaeRipiphorid
Two beetle families, Ripiphoridae (450 species ) and Rhipiceridae, are largely parasitoids, as are Aleochara Staphylinidae; in all, some 400 staphylinids are parasitoidal.
The Ripiphoridae are unusual among beetle families in that many species are hypermetamorphic parasitoids, an attribute that they share with the Meloidae.

Odo Reuter

ReuterOdo Morannal Reuter
The term "parasitoid" was coined in 1913 by the Swedo-Finnish writer Odo Reuter, and adopted in English by his reviewer, the entomologist William Morton Wheeler.
He coined the term "parasitoid" to describe the way of life of species such as many wasps which feed on but do not immediately kill their prey.

Aleochara

Two beetle families, Ripiphoridae (450 species ) and Rhipiceridae, are largely parasitoids, as are Aleochara Staphylinidae; in all, some 400 staphylinids are parasitoidal.
Aleochara is an unusual genus in the beetle family Staphylinidae, the Rove beetles; larvae of Staphylinidae occur in many assorted ecological roles, most being scavengers, predators or carrion feeders, but the larvae of at least those species of Aleochara whose life histories are known, are parasitoids; they feed in the puparia of suitable species of flies, killing the host in the process.

Stylogaster

StylogastrinaeStylogastrines
The true flies (Diptera) include several families of parasitoids, the largest of which is the Tachinidae (some 9,200 species ), followed by the Bombyliidae (some 4,500 species ), along with the Pipunculidae and the Conopidae, which includes parasitoidal genera such as Stylogaster.
The Stylogaster larvae then develop as endoparasitoids.

Superparasitism

If multiple parasitoids of the same species coexist in a single host, it is called superparasitism.
Superparasitism is a form of parasitism in which the host (typically an insect larva such as a caterpillar) is attacked more than once by a single species of parasitoid.

Polydnavirus

Polydnaviridaepolydna virusesPolydnaviruses
To thwart this, some wasps inundate their host with their eggs so as to overload its immune system's ability to encapsulate foreign bodies; others introduce a virus which interferes with the host's immune system.
These viruses are part of a unique biological system consisting of an endoparasitic wasp (parasitoid), a host (usually lepidopteran) larva, and the virus.