Parasomnia

parasomniasconfusional arousalparasomniacsleep arousal
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.wikipedia
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Sleep disorder

sleep disorderssleep disturbancesleep disturbances
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.
Sleep disorders are broadly classified into dyssomnias, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders involving the timing of sleep, and other disorders including ones caused by medical or psychological conditions.

Sleepwalking

somnambulismsomnambulistsleepwalker
These disorders of arousal can range from confusional arousals, somnambulism, to night terrors.
It is classified as a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family.

Sleep sex

sexomniasexsomnia
Other specific disorders include sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and somniloquy.
Sexsomnia, also known as sleep sex, is a distinct form of parasomnia, or an abnormal activity that occurs while an individual is asleep.

Night terror

night terrorspavor nocturnusSleep terrors
These disorders of arousal can range from confusional arousals, somnambulism, to night terrors.
Sleep terrors are then classified in the category of NREM-related parasomnias in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders.

Non-rapid eye movement sleep

NREMNREM sleepnon-REM sleep
Parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions between wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep, and their combinations. NREM parasomnias are arousal disorders that occur during stage 3 (or 4 by the R&K standardization) of NREM sleep—also known as slow wave sleep (SWS).

Somniloquy

talking in his sleepSleep talkingsleep-talking
Other specific disorders include sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and somniloquy.
Somniloquy or sleep-talking is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep.

Bruxism

teeth grindinggrinding of teethsleep bruxism
Other specific disorders include sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and somniloquy.
There is evidence that sleep bruxism is caused by mechanisms related to the central nervous system, involving sleep arousal and neurotransmitter abnormalities.

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

REM sleep behavior disorderREM behavior disorderRapid eye movement behavior disorder
Unlike other parasomnias, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in which muscle atonia is absent is most common in older adults.
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) in which people act out their dreams.

Night eating syndrome

sleep eatingsleepeating
Other specific disorders include sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and somniloquy.
The person must have awareness of the night eating to differentiate it from the parasomnia sleep-related eating disorder (SRED).

Clonazepam

KlonopinRivotril
Besides ensuring the sleep environment is a safe place, pharmacologic therapy using melatonin and clonazepam is also common as a treatment for RBD, even though might not eliminate all abnormal behaviours.

Dementia with Lewy bodies

Lewy body diseaseLewy body dementiaDLB
RBD associated with neurological disorders is frequently related to abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein, and more than 80% of patients with idiopathic RBD might develop Lewy body disease (LBD).
REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia in which individuals with RBD lose the paralysis of muscles (atonia) normal during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and act out their dreams or have other abnormal movements or vocalizations.

Sleep paralysis

Phi Amold haghag ridden
Recurrent isolated sleep paralysis is an inability to perform voluntary movements at sleep onset, or upon waking from sleep.
The first of these stems from the understanding that sleep paralysis is a parasomnia resulting from dysfunctional overlap of the REM and waking stages of sleep.

Polysomnography

polysomnogramsleep studypolysomnographic
The diagnosis is based on clinical history, including partner's account and needs to be confirmed by polysomnography (PSG), mainly for its accuracy in differentiating RBD from other sleep disorders, since there is a loss of REM atonia with excessive muscle tone.
Polysomnography is used to diagnose, or rule out, many types of sleep disorders, including narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), REM behavior disorder, parasomnias, and sleep apnea.

Sleep medicine

sleep laboratorysleep managementsleep specialist
The revised ICSD, ICSD-R, placed the primary sleep disorders in the subgroups (1) dyssomnias, which include those that produce complaints of insomnia or excessive sleepiness, and (2) the parasomnias, which do not produce those primary complaints but intrude into or occur during sleep.

Rapid eye movement sleep

REM sleepREMrapid eye movement
Parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions between wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep, and their combinations.

Slow-wave sleep

slow wave sleepdeep sleepslow-wave
NREM parasomnias are arousal disorders that occur during stage 3 (or 4 by the R&K standardization) of NREM sleep—also known as slow wave sleep (SWS).

Autonomic nervous system

autonomicautonomous nervous systemautonomic functions
In particular, these disorders involve activation of the autonomic nervous system, motor system, or cognitive processes during sleep or sleep-wake transitions.

Motor system

motormotor systemsmovement
In particular, these disorders involve activation of the autonomic nervous system, motor system, or cognitive processes during sleep or sleep-wake transitions.

Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
In particular, these disorders involve activation of the autonomic nervous system, motor system, or cognitive processes during sleep or sleep-wake transitions.

Sleep deprivation

deprived of sleepsleep deprivedlack of sleep
They can be triggered in certain individuals, by alcohol, sleep deprivation, physical activity, emotional stress, depression, medications, or a fevered illness.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
They can be triggered in certain individuals, by alcohol, sleep deprivation, physical activity, emotional stress, depression, medications, or a fevered illness.

Restless legs syndrome

restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)
Other specific disorders include sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and somniloquy.

Human sexual activity

sexual activitysexual behaviorsex
Thereby, a person will engage in sexual acts while still asleep.

Masturbation

masturbatingmasturbatemasturbates
It can include such acts as masturbation, inappropriate fondling themselves or others, having sex with another person; and in more extreme cases, sexual assault.