Pardon of Richard Nixon

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The pardon of Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974, by US President Gerald Ford granted Richard Nixon, Ford's predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president.wikipedia
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Gerald Ford

Gerald R. FordFordGerald R. Ford, Jr.
The pardon of Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974, by US President Gerald Ford granted Richard Nixon, Ford's predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president.
In one of his most controversial acts, he granted a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal.

Richard Nixon

Richard M. NixonNixonPresident Nixon
The pardon of Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974, by US President Gerald Ford granted Richard Nixon, Ford's predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president.
After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford.

Watergate scandal

WatergateWatergate break-inWatergate burglaries
In particular, the pardon covered Nixon's actions during the Watergate scandal.
On September 8, 1974, Nixon's successor, Gerald Ford, pardoned him.

Jerald terHorst

Jerald F. ter HorstJerald F. terHorstJerry terHorst
Ford's first press secretary and close friend Jerald terHorst resigned his post in protest after the pardon.
His resignation in protest of Ford's unconditional pardon of former President Richard Nixon is still regarded as "a rare act of conscience by a high-ranking public official".

1976 United States presidential election

19761976 presidential election1976 election
Historians believe that the controversy was one of the major reasons that Ford lost the election in 1976, and Ford agreed with that observation.
Saddled with a poor economy, the fall of South Vietnam and his unpopular pardon of Nixon, Ford trailed by a wide margin in polls taken after Carter's formal nomination in July 1976.

Burdick v. United States

caseSupreme Court reinforced the necessity of accepting a pardon to be valid
After Ford left the White House in 1977, he privately justified his pardon of Nixon by carrying in his wallet a portion of the text of Burdick v. United States, a 1915 U.S. Supreme Court decision that suggested that a pardon carries an imputation of guilt and that its acceptance carries a confession of guilt.
After President Gerald Ford left the White House in 1977, intimates said that the President privately justified his pardon of Richard Nixon by carrying in his wallet a portion of the text of the Burdick decision that suggested that a pardon carries an imputation of guilt and that acceptance carries a confession of guilt.

Ron Ziegler

Ronald ZieglerRonald L. ZieglerRonald Louis Ziegler
His former press secretary, Ron Ziegler, sat with him alone for hours each day.
On November 12, 1999, Ziegler was due to participate by telephone in a television panel discussion that included several former Nixon and Ford aides, including his successor as White House Press Secretary, Jerald terHorst, who had resigned in protest at President Ford's pardon of Nixon.

1974 United States elections

1974United States elections, 19741974 elections
Nixon was in the hospital when the 1974 midterm elections were held, and Watergate and the pardon were contributing factors to the Republican loss of 43 seats in the House and three in the Senate.
Ford's granting of a pardon to his predecessor, Richard Nixon, along with soaring inflation caused by the 1973 oil crisis, created a tough environment for the Republican Party.

Corrupt bargain

election was thrown into the House for resolutionThe Corrupt Bargain
Critics derided the move and claimed a "corrupt bargain" had been struck between the men: that Ford's pardon was granted in exchange for Nixon's resignation, elevating Ford to the presidency.
Gerald Ford's 1974 pardon of Richard Nixon was widely described as a "corrupt bargain" by critics of the disgraced former president.

Federal pardons in the United States

pardonpardonedpresidential pardon
President Gerald Ford's broad federal pardon of former president Richard M. Nixon in 1974 for "all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in during the period from January 20, 1969 through August 9, 1974" is a notable example of a fixed-period federal pardon that came prior to any indictments being issued and that covered unspecified federal offenses that may or may not have been committed.

Profile in Courage Award

John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage AwardProfiles in Courage AwardProfile In Courage Awards
In 2001, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation awarded the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award to Ford for his pardon of Nixon.

Impeachment process against Richard Nixon

impeachmentimpeachment proceedingsStennis Compromise
With Nixon's resignation, Congress dropped its impeachment proceedings against him.
Concerned about Nixon's well-being, and worried that the "ugly passions" aroused by the Watergate scandal would rise again during a lengthy Nixon prosecution, on September 8, 1974 President Ford granted Nixon a "full, free and absolute pardon" for all crimes that Nixon had "committed or may have committed or taken part in" as president.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. PresidentUnited States President
The pardon of Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974, by US President Gerald Ford granted Richard Nixon, Ford's predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president.

Pardon

clemencypresidential pardonpardoned
The pardon of Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974, by US President Gerald Ford granted Richard Nixon, Ford's predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The pardon of Richard Nixon on September 8, 1974, by US President Gerald Ford granted Richard Nixon, Ford's predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
After Ford left the White House in 1977, he privately justified his pardon of Nixon by carrying in his wallet a portion of the text of Burdick v. United States, a 1915 U.S. Supreme Court decision that suggested that a pardon carries an imputation of guilt and that its acceptance carries a confession of guilt.

Nixon White House tapes

Watergate tapesWhite House tapesNixon tapes
Following the release of the White House tapes on August 5, 1974, Nixon's position had become untenable.

White House Chief of Staff

Chief of StaffChief of Staff to the PresidentWhite House Chiefs of Staff
In his autobiography, A Time to Heal, Ford wrote about a meeting he had with White House Chief of Staff Alexander Haig before Nixon's resignation.

Alexander Haig

Alexander M. HaigAlexander M. Haig Jr.Haig
In his autobiography, A Time to Heal, Ford wrote about a meeting he had with White House Chief of Staff Alexander Haig before Nixon's resignation.

The Washington Post

Washington Postwashingtonpost.comWashington Post Magazine
In a Washington Post story published the night Ford died, journalist Bob Woodward said that Ford once told Woodward he decided to pardon Nixon for other reasons, primarily the friendship that Ford and Nixon shared.

Bob Woodward

WoodwardWoodward, BobRobert Woodward
In a Washington Post story published the night Ford died, journalist Bob Woodward said that Ford once told Woodward he decided to pardon Nixon for other reasons, primarily the friendship that Ford and Nixon shared.

La Casa Pacifica

Western White House
Following Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, the Nixons flew to their home La Casa Pacifica in San Clemente, California.

San Clemente, California

San ClementeSan Clemente, CAPoche Beach
Following Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, the Nixons flew to their home La Casa Pacifica in San Clemente, California.

Jonathan Aitken

Aitken, JonathanJonathan
According to his biographer, Jonathan Aitken, after his resignation, "Nixon was a soul in torment."