Pargana

munsifparaganaparganasparganahFeudatory KingdomKarkunkarkunsmahalmahalsShikdar/Sikdar
A pargana, or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.wikipedia
192 Related Articles

Mughal Empire

MughalMughalsMughal India
A pargana, or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms. In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs (roughly equivalent of state or province), which were further subdivided into sarkars (roughly the equivalent of districts), which were themselves organised into parganas (roughly the equivalent of district subdivisions such as tehsil).
Sarkars were further divided into Parganas or Mahals.

Subah

subahssarkarsSuba
In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs (roughly equivalent of state or province), which were further subdivided into sarkars (roughly the equivalent of districts), which were themselves organised into parganas (roughly the equivalent of district subdivisions such as tehsil).
Sarkars were further divided into Parganas or Mahals.

Mouza

mauzamouzasmauzas
As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside.
Before the 20th century, the term referred to a revenue collection unit in a pargana or revenue district.

Sarkar (country subdivision)

sarkarsarkarsCircar
In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs (roughly equivalent of state or province), which were further subdivided into sarkars (roughly the equivalent of districts), which were themselves organised into parganas (roughly the equivalent of district subdivisions such as tehsil).
A sarkar was further divided into Mahallas or Parganas.

Tehsil

Talukatalukmandal
British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks.
The terms in India have replaced earlier geographical terms, such as pargana and thana.

North 24 Parganas district

North 24 ParganasNorth 24 ParaganasNorth Twenty Four Parganas
Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.
The modern-day 24 Parganas was the southern and the south-eastern territory of that legendary kingdom.

Gwalior State

GwaliorMaharaja of GwaliorKingdom of Gwalior
The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior.
The northern section consisted of a compact block of territory with an area of 44,082 km2, lying between 24º10' and 26º52' N. and 74º38' and 79º8' E. It was bounded on the north, northeast, and northwest by the Chambal River, which separated it from the native states of Dholpur, Karauli, and Jaipur in the Rajputana Agency; on the east by the British districts of Jalaun and Jhansi in the United Provinces, and by Saugor District in the Central Provinces; on the south by the states of Bhopal, Khilchipur, and Rajgarh, and by the Sironj pargana of Tonk State; and on the west by the states of Jhalawar, Tonk, and Kotah in the Rajputana Agency.

Delhi Sultanate

Sultanate of DelhiSultan of DelhiDelhi
A pargana, or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms. Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin.

British Raj

British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
A pargana, or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Indian subcontinent

IndiasubcontinentIndian
A pargana, or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin.

Sher Shah Suri

Sher ShahShershah SuriSher Khan
Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (an arbitrator who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

Akbar

Akbar the GreatEmperor AkbarJalaluddin Muhammed Akbar
In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs (roughly equivalent of state or province), which were further subdivided into sarkars (roughly the equivalent of districts), which were themselves organised into parganas (roughly the equivalent of district subdivisions such as tehsil).

Presidencies and provinces of British India

British IndiaIndiaBritish
As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh.

Bengal

Bengal regionBengal, IndiaBengali
As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh.

Permanent Settlement

Permanent Settlement of Bengalrevenue settlementrevenue settlements
As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh.

Zamindar

zamindarizamindarsZamindari system
As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh.

List of districts in India

District640Districts
British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks.

Princely state

princely statesIndian Princely Statesprincely
The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior.

Tonk, India

TonkTonk StateTonk, Rajasthan
The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.

South 24 Parganas

South 24 Parganas districtSouth 24 Paraganas24 Parganas (South)
Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.

West Bengal

West Bengal, IndiaBengalWestern Bengal
Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.