Paris

Gold coins minted by the Parisii (1st century BC)
The Palais de la Cité and Sainte-Chapelle, viewed from the Left Bank, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (month of June) (1410)
The Hôtel de Sens, one of many remnants of the Middle Ages in Paris
The storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, by Jean-Pierre Houël
The Panthéon, a major landmark on the Rive Gauche, was completed in 1790.
The Eiffel Tower, under construction in November 1888, startled Parisians — and the world — with its modernity.
General Charles de Gaulle on the Champs-Élysées celebrating the liberation of Paris, 26 August 1944
Western Paris in 2016, as photographed by a SkySat satellite
Anti-terrorism demonstration on the Place de la République after the Charlie Hebdo shooting, 11 January 2015
Satellite image of Paris by Sentinel-2
Autumn in Paris
A map of the arrondissements of Paris
The Hôtel de Ville, or city hall, has been at the same site since 1357.
A map of the Greater Paris Metropolis (Métropole du Grand Paris) and its governing territories
The Élysée Palace, official residence of the President of the French Republic
The Palais-Royal, residence of the Conseil d'État
Police (Gendarmerie) motorcyclists in Paris
Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, Hermitage Museum
Rue de Rivoli
Place des Vosges
Paris and its suburbs, as seen from the Spot Satellite
West of Paris seen from Tour Montparnasse in 2019
City proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2010
Sacré-Cœur in Montmartre
St-Gervais-et-St-Protais in Le Marais
The Eiffel Tower and the La Défense district
Employment by economic sector in the Paris area (petite couronne), with population and unemployment figures (2015)
Median income in Paris and its nearest departments in 2018 (high income in red, low income in yellow)
Tourists from around the world make the Louvre the most-visited art museum in the world.
The Passage Jouffroy, one of Paris's covered passages
The Axe historique, pictured here from Concorde to Grande Arche of La Défense
Pierre Mignard, Self-portrait, between 1670 and 1690, oil on canvas, 235 x, The Louvre
Auguste Renoir, Bal du moulin de la Galette, 1876, oil on canvas, 131 x, Musée d'Orsay
Musée d'Orsay
Musée du quai Branly
The Comédie Française (Salle Richelieu)
Victor Hugo
Jean-Paul Sartre
Olympia, a famous music hall
Charles Aznavour
Salah Zulfikar and Sabah in Paris and Love (1972)
Dining room of the Vagenende
Le Zimmer, on the Place du Châtelet, where Géo Lefèvre first suggested the idea of a Tour de France to Henri Desgrange in 1902
Les Deux Magots café on Boulevard Saint-Germain
Magdalena Frackowiak at Paris Fashion Week (Fall 2011)
Republican Guards parading on Bastille Day
The main building of the former University of Paris is now used by classes from Sorbonne University, New Sorbonne University and other autonomous campuses.
The École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), France's most prestigious university in the social sciences, is headquartered in the 6th arrondissement.
Sainte-Geneviève Library
Parc des Princes
2010 Tour de France, Champs Élysées
The French Open, played on red clay, is one of four Grand Slams in professional tennis.
The Gare du Nord railway station is the busiest in Europe.
The Paris Métro is the busiest subway network in the European Union.
In 2020 Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport was the busiest airport in Europe and the eighth-busiest airport in the world.
Ring roads of Paris
Vélib' at the Place de la Bastille
A view of the Seine, the Île de la Cité and a Bateau Mouche
The lawns of the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont on a sunny day
The Passerelle de l'Avre, crossing the Seine and establishing a link between the Bois de Boulogne and Saint-Cloud in Hauts-de-Seine, is the City of Paris's westernmost point.
The Paris Catacombs hold the remains of approximately 6 million people.
The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, the oldest hospital in the city
Agence France-Presse Headquarters in Paris
Column dedicated to Paris near the Baths of Diocletian in Rome
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the square Paul Painlevé in Paris

Capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² , making it the 34th most densely populated city in the world in 2020.

- Paris
Gold coins minted by the Parisii (1st century BC)

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Charles de Gaulle Airport

Largest international airport in France.

Largest international airport in France.

Airport Diagram
Aerial view of Terminal 1 (before refurbishment)
Aerial view of Terminal 2A and 2B (before refurbishment)
Collapsed Terminal 2E, June 2004
Map of terminal 2 various halls
Terminal 2, former display screen
Air France aircraft on stands at Terminal 2F at Charles de Gaulle Airport.
Terminal 2, CDGVAL station
Terminal 2E, LISA station
RER station of Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 TGV
Train station of Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 TGV
Countries served by CDG

Opened in 1974, it is in Roissy-en-France, 23 km (14 mi) northeast of Paris, and is named after statesman Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970).

Orly Airport

Terminals 1, 2, 3, 4
Terminal 4
Terminal 4
Interior of Terminal 4
Interior of Terminal 1

Paris Orly Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Orly), commonly referred to as Orly, is an international airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, 13 km south of Paris, France.

Gare du Nord

Main façade
New wing
Panoramic view of the arrival hall
Departure board showing typical destinations
Eurostar, Thalys and TGV trains fill the platforms
New section with the hall for the RER lines

The Gare du Nord (English: station of the North or Northern Station), officially Paris-Nord, is one of the six large mainline railway station termini in Paris, France.

Paris Métro

Rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France.

Rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France.

Métro signage
During the initial construction of the Métro, the tunnels were excavated in open sites and then covered.
Bastille station at the beginning of the 20th century
Construction of Chevaleret station, 1903
Line 2 near Jaurès station
A Nord-Sud station sign
Paris Métro network in 1939
The Viaduc d'Austerlitz, crossing the Seine, is used by Line 5
Saint-Lazare station
Franklin D. Roosevelt station on Line 1, refurbished in the late 2000s
Pointe du Lac station, opened in 2011
Paris Métro map (2013)
Ticket "t+"
Hector Guimard's original Art Nouveau entrance of the Paris Métro at Porte Dauphine station
Entrance to a Metra commuter rail station in Chicago, designed in Art Nouveau style as a replica of a Paris Métro station
Overview of Passy station
Line 6 train running on the Pont de Bir-Hakeim near the Eiffel Tower
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MF 77  {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|7}}{{rint|paris|m|8}}{{rint|paris|m|13}}
MF 88  {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|7bis}}
MF 01  {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|2}}{{rint|paris|m|5}}{{rint|paris|m|9}}
MP 59   {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|11}}
MP 73  {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|6|}}{{rint|paris|m|11}}
MP 89 CA   {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|14}}
MP 89   {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|4}}
MP 05   {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|1}}{{rint|paris|m|14}}
MP 14   {{rint|paris|m|}}{{rint|paris|m|14}}

A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the capital's territorial limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau.

Louvre

Aerial view of the Louvre Palace and Tuileries Park
Below-ground portions of the medieval Louvre are still visible.
Antonio Canova's Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss was commissioned in 1787, donated in 1824.
The Venus de Milo was added to the Louvre's collection during the reign of Louis XVIII.
The display in the Salon Carré, painted by Giuseppe Castiglione in 1861 following its repurposing of the late 1840s. Veronese's Wedding at Cana is visible on the left, and his Supper in the House of Simon (now at the Palace of Versailles) on the right
Memorial plaques honoring the Louvre's defenders in May 1871
The Louvre's monumental Escalier Daru, topped by the Winged Victory of Samothrace, took its current appearance in the early 1930s
Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt seen with a plaster model of the Venus de Milo, while visiting the Louvre with the curator Alfred Merlin on 7 October 1940
Seating designed by Pierre Paulin in the late 1960s, Grande Galerie
Marc Saltet's 1972 museography for the Salon Carré, with "dos-à-dos" seat designed in 1967 by Pierre Paulin
Ceiling by Cy Twombly installed in 2010 in the Salle des Bronzes, before room redesign in 2021
Greek antiquities in Room 11
The Cour Marly of the Louvre, where many French sculptures are exhibited
Mona Lisa; by Leonardo da Vinci; circa 1503–1506, perhaps continuing until circa 1517; oil on poplar panel; 77 cm × 53 cm
Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is the Louvre's most popular attraction.
Restoration workshops in the Louvre
List of excavations that benefited the Louvre (Rotonde d'Apollon)
First room
Room 27
Room 29
Salle des Colonnes
Room 35
Room 36
Room 38
Entrance to a section of the Musée Napoléon III from the salle des séances, then a double-height space
Galerie Daru, part of the New Louvre building program under Napoleon III
Salle Daru above the galerie Daru, also created under Napoleon III
Escalier Mollien in the New Louvre
Salle des Empereurs
The Napoleon Courtyard and I. M. Pei's pyramid in its center, at dusk.
The {{lang|fr|Pavillon des Sessions}}'s display of non-Western art from the Musée du Quai Branly, opened in 2000
The {{lang|fr|Cour Visconti}}'s ground floor covered to host the new Islamic Art Department in 2012
Islamic art display in the covered {{lang|fr|Cour Visconti}}, 2012
Underground display of the Islamic Art Department, 2012
The Gebel el-Arak Knife; 3300-3200 BC; handle: elephant ivory, blade: flint; length: 25.8 cm
The Seated Scribe; 2613–2494 BC; painted limestone and inlaid quartz; height: 53.7 cm
The Great Sphinx of Tanis; circa 2600 BC; rose granite; height: 183 cm, width: 154 cm, thickness: 480 cm
Akhenaten and Nefertiti; 1345 BC; painted limestone; height: 22.2 cm, width: 12.3 cm, thickness: 9.8 cm
Phoenician metal bowls from Cyprus
The Statue of Ebih-Il; circa 2400 BC; gypsum, schist, shells and lapis lazuli; height: 52.5 cm
The Code of Hammurabi; 1755–1750 BC; basalt; height: 225 cm, width: 79 cm, thickness: 47 cm
Assyrian lamassu (Human-headed winged bull); circa 713–716 BC; 4.2 x 4.4 x 1 m
Frieze of archers, from the Palace of Darius at Susa; circa 510 BC; bricks
Cycladic head of a woman; 27th century BC; marble; height: 27 cm
Volute krater that depicts Actaeon's death; circa 450–440 BC; ceramic; height: 51 cm, diameter: 33.1 cm
The Winged Victory of Samothrace; 200–190 BC; Parian marble; 244 cm
Venus de Milo; 130–100 BC; marble; height: 203 cm
The Pyxis of al-Mughira; 10th century (maybe 968); ivory; 15 x 8 cm
Iranian tile with bismillah; turn of the 13th-14th century; molded ceramic, luster glaze and glaze
The Baptistère de Saint Louis; by Muhammad ibn al-Zayn; 1320–1340; hammering, engraving, inlay in brass, gold, and silver; 50.2 x 22.2 cm
Door; 15th-16th century; sculpted, painted and gilded walnut wood
The Tomb of Philippe Pot; 1477 and 1483; limestone, paint, gold and lead; height: 181 cm, width: 260 cm, depth: 167 cm
The King's Fame Riding Pegasus; by Antoine Coysevox; 1701–1702; Carrara marble; height: 3.15 m, width: 2.91 m, depth: 1.28 m
Group sculpture; by Nicolas Coustou; 1701–1712; marble; height: 2.44 m
Louis XV as Jupiter; 1731; probably marble; height: 1.95 m, width: 1.20 m, depth: 68 cm
Henry II style wardrobe; circa 1580; walnut and oak, partially gilded and painted; height: 2.06 m, width: 1.50 m, depth: 0.60 m<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/armoire-said-be-hugues-sambin|title=Armoire said to be by Hugues Sambin|author=Barbier Muriel|website=louvre.fr|access-date=12 March 2021}}</ref>
Louis XIV style cabinet on stand; by André Charles Boulle; circa 1690–1710; oak frame, resinous wood and walnut, ebony veneer, tortoiseshell, brass and pewter marquetry, and ormolu
Louis XVI style commode of Madame du Barry; 1772; oak frame, veneer of pearwood, rosewood and kingwood, soft-paste Sèvres porcelain, gilded bronze, white marble, and glass; height: 0.87 m, width: 1.19 m, depth: 0.48 m<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/commode-madame-du-barry|title=Commode of Madame du Barry|author=Barbier Muriel|website=louvre.fr|access-date=12 March 2021}}</ref>
Louis XVI style barometer-thermometer; circa 1776; soft-paste Sèvres porcelain, enamel, and ormolu; height: 1 m, width: 0.27 m<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/barometer-thermometer?sous_dept=1|title=Barometer-thermometer|author=Catherine Voiriot|website=louvre.fr|access-date=12 March 2021}}</ref>
The Money Changer and His Wife; by Quentin Massys; 1514; oil on panel; 70.5 × 67 cm
Spring; by Giuseppe Arcimboldo; 1573; oil on canvas; 76 × 64 cm
Susanna and the Elders; by Giambattista Pittoni; 1720; oil on panel; 37 × 46 cm
The Continence of Scipio; by Giambattista Pittoni; 1733; oil on panel; 96 × 56 cm
Diana after the Bath; by François Boucher; 1742; oil on canvas; 73 × 56 cm
Oath of the Horatii; by Jacques-Louis David; 1784; oil on canvas; height: 330 cm, width: 425 cm
The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David
<center>Virgin of the Rocks</center>
<center>The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne (Leonardo)</center>
Three lion-like heads; by Charles Le Brun; circa 1671; black chalk, pen and ink, brush and gray wash, white gouache on paper; 21.7 × 32,7 cm
Bacchus; by Antoine Coypel; black chalk, white highlights, and sanguine; 42.7 × 37.7 cm
Studies of Women's Heads and a Man's Head; by Antoine Watteau; first half of the 18th century; sanguine, black chalk and white chalk on gray paper; 28 × 38.1 cm
Danseuse sur la scène; by Edgar Degas; pastel; 58 × 42 cm
Portrait of elderly woman, by Matthias Grünewald
Portrait of a young woman، by Hans Holbein
Head of a man, by Andrea del Sarto
Virgin and Child, by Biagio Pupini

The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre ), is the world's most-visited museum, and a historic landmark in Paris, France.

The Musée d'Orsay as seen from the Passerelle Léopold-Sédar-Senghor

Musée d'Orsay

The Musée d'Orsay as seen from the Passerelle Léopold-Sédar-Senghor
Musée d'Orsay as seen from the Pont du Carrousel
Musée d'Orsay Clock, Victor Laloux, Main Hall
The interior of the museum.
Musée d'Orsay seen from the right bank of the Seine river
Festival hall of the Musée d'Orsay
Vincent van Gogh:
Starry Night Over the Rhône, 1888
Pierre-Auguste Renoir:
Bal du moulin de la Galette, 1876
Édouard Manet
The Luncheon on the Grass
1862-63
Gustave Courbet:
The Artist's Studio 1855
Paul Cézanne:
The Card Players 1894–1895
Paul Cézanne:
Apples and Oranges
c. 1899
William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Equality Before Death, 1848
Eugène Delacroix, The Lion Hunt, c. 1854
Théodore Chassériau, Tepidarium, 1853
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, The Source, 1856
Jean-François Millet, The Gleaners, 1857
Édouard Manet, Olympia, 1863
Claude Monet, Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, (right section), includes Gustave Courbet, 1865-1866
Paul Cézanne, Portrait of Achille Emperaire, 1868
Eugène Boudin, Bathers on the Beach at Trouville, 1869
James McNeill Whistler, Whistler's Mother, 1871
Gustave Caillebotte, Les raboteurs de parquet (The Floor Scrapers), 1875
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe, 1876
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance in the Country (Aline Charigot and Paul Lhote), 1883
Paul Sérusier, The Talisman/Le Talisman, 1888
Self-portrait (1889) by Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh, The Church at Auvers, 1890
Paul Gauguin, Tahitian Women on the Beach, 1891
Georges Seurat, The Circus, 1891
Paul Gauguin, Oviri (Sauvage), 1894
Georges Lacombe, L'Existence, 1894–1896
Albert Lebourg, Paris, l'écluse de la Monnaie. Soleil d'hiver
József Rippl-Rónai, Female with Flower, 1891
Louise Catherine Breslau, Portrait of Henry Davison, 1880
Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, La Vuelta de la Pesca, 1894
Eugène Delaplanche, Africa, 1878

The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine.

Map of the provinces of France in their final form in 1789, shortly before they were abolished the following year.

Provinces of France

Organised into provinces until the National Constituent Assembly adopted a more uniform division into departments and districts in late 1789.

Organised into provinces until the National Constituent Assembly adopted a more uniform division into departments and districts in late 1789.

Map of the provinces of France in their final form in 1789, shortly before they were abolished the following year.
Provinces of France in 1789 relative to the modern borders of France Note: The Comtat Venaissin (annexed 1791), Mulhouse (annexed 1798), Montbéliard (annexed 1816), Savoy and Nice (annexed 1860), as well as small portions of other provinces were not part of the Kingdom of France.
Map showing former provinces (in colours), with modern department boundaries in black

1) Île-de-France (Paris)

Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1872, oil on canvas, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris. This painting became the source of the movement's name, after Louis Leroy's article The Exhibition of the Impressionists satirically implied that the painting was at most, a sketch.

Impressionism

19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities , ordinary subject matter, unusual visual angles, and inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience.

19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities , ordinary subject matter, unusual visual angles, and inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience.

Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1872, oil on canvas, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris. This painting became the source of the movement's name, after Louis Leroy's article The Exhibition of the Impressionists satirically implied that the painting was at most, a sketch.
J. M. W. Turner's atmospheric work was influential on the birth of Impressionism, here The Fighting Temeraire (1839)
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette), 1876, Musée d'Orsay, one of Impressionism's most celebrated masterpieces.
Édouard Manet, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863
Alfred Sisley, View of the Canal Saint-Martin, 1870, Musée d'Orsay
Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son (Camille and Jean Monet), 1875, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
Mary Cassatt, Lydia Leaning on Her Arms (in a theatre box), 1879
Camille Pissarro, Hay Harvest at Éragny, 1901, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
Berthe Morisot, Reading, 1873, Cleveland Museum of Art
Claude Monet, Jardin à Sainte-Adresse, 1867, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York., a work showing the influence of Japanese prints
Berthe Morisot, The Harbour at Lorient, 1869, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Mary Cassatt, Young Girl at a Window, 1885, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Eva Gonzalès, Une Loge aux Italiens, or, Box at the Italian Opera, ca. 1874, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1874, Detroit Institute of Arts
The Girl with Peaches (1887, Tretyakov Gallery) by Valentin Serov
Arthur Streeton's 1889 landscape Golden Summer, Eaglemont, held at the National Gallery of Australia, is an example of Australian impressionism.
Peder Severin Krøyer's 1888 work Hip, Hip, Hurrah!, held at the Gothenburg Museum of Art, shows members of the Skagen Painters.
Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1916, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
Camille Pissarro, Children on a Farm, 1887
Frédéric Bazille, Paysage au bord du Lez, 1870, Minneapolis Institute of Art
Alfred Sisley, Bridge at Villeneuve-la-Garenne, 1872, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Berthe Morisot, The Cradle, 1872, Musée d'Orsay
Armand Guillaumin, Sunset at Ivry (Soleil couchant à Ivry), 1873, Musée d'Orsay
Édouard Manet, Boating, 1874, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Alfred Sisley, La Seine au Point du jour, 1877, Museum of modern art André Malraux - MuMa, Le Havre
Édouard Manet, The Plum, 1878, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
alt=Landscape painting depicting the cliffs of Normandy by Claude Moneyt|thumb|Claude Monet, La Falaise à Fécamp, 1881, Aberdeen Art Gallery
Édouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), 1882, Courtauld Institute of Art
Edgar Degas, After the Bath, Woman Drying Herself, c. 1884–1886 (reworked between 1890 and 1900), MuMa, Le Havre
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe, 1876, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
Edgar Degas, Dancer with a Bouquet of Flowers (Star of the Ballet), 1878, Getty Center, Los Angeles
Edgar Degas, Woman in the Bath, 1886, Hill–Stead Museum, Farmington, Connecticut
Edgar Degas, Dancers at The Bar, 1888, The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
Gustave Caillebotte, Paris Street; Rainy Day, 1877, Art Institute of Chicago
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, La Parisienne, 1874, National Museum Cardiff
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait of Irène Cahen d'Anvers (La Petite Irène), 1880, Foundation E.G. Bührle, Zürich
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Two Sisters (On the Terrace), 1881, Art Institute of Chicago
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Girl with a Hoop, 1885, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Camille Pissarro, Washerwoman, Study, 1880. Metropolitan Museum of Art
Camille Pissarro, Conversation, c. 1881. National Museum of Western Art
Claude Monet, The Cliff at Étretat after the Storm, 1885, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts
Mary Cassatt, The Child's Bath (The Bath), 1893, oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago
Berthe Morisot, Portrait of Mme Boursier and Her Daughter, c. 1873, Brooklyn Museum
Claude Monet, Le Grand Canal, 1908, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884–1886, The Art Institute of Chicago
Vincent van Gogh, Cypresses, 1889, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Paul Gauguin, The Midday Nap, 1894, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Paul Cézanne, The Card Players, 1894–1895, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

Skyline of Tokyo, the capital and financial centre of Japan

Capital city

Municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, department, or other subnational entity, usually as its seat of the government.

Municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, department, or other subnational entity, usually as its seat of the government.

Skyline of Tokyo, the capital and financial centre of Japan
The Roman Forum was surrounded by many government buildings as the capital of ancient Rome
The L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States
The Australian Parliament opened in the small town of Canberra in 1927 as a compromise between the largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne.
The Supreme Court, the seat of Switzerland's judiciary, is in Lausanne, although the executive and legislature are located in Bern.
Parliament House, Singapore. As a city-state, Singapore requires no specific capital.
The Blue Palace, the official residence of Montenegro's president, is in Cetinje, although the executive and legislature are located in Podgorica.
Mariehamn, capital city of Åland, a demilitarized archipelago with self-governance
As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has served as the political center of China for most of the past eight centuries.
Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the final part of the empire to fall to the Ottoman Turks due to its strong defences.

(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, ancient Athens, Rome, Bratislava, Budapest, Constantinople, Chang'an, ancient Cusco, Kyiv, Madrid, Paris, Podgorica, London, Beijing, Prague, Tallinn, Tokyo, Lisbon, Riga, Vilnius, and Warsaw.

France

Transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – approximately 17,000 BC. Lascaux is famous for its "exceptionally detailed depictions of humans and animals".
Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar during the Battle of Alesia. The Gallic defeat in the Gallic Wars secured the Roman conquest of the country.
The Maison Carrée was a temple of the Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) and is one of the best-preserved vestiges of the Roman Empire.
Frankish expansion from 481 to 870
With Clovis's conversion to Catholicism in 498, the Frankish monarchy, elective and secular until then, became hereditary and of divine right.
Joan of Arc led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), which paved the way for the final victory.
Metropolitan France territorial evolution from 985 to 1947
The Château de Chenonceau, nowadays part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was built in the early 16th century.
Louis XIV, the "Sun King", was the absolute monarch of France and made France the leading European power.
Ouverture des États généraux à Versailles, 5 mai 1789 by Auguste Couder
The Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 was the most emblematic event of the French Revolution.
Le Serment du Jeu de paume by Jacques-Louis David, 1791
Napoleon, Emperor of the French, built a vast empire across Europe. His conquests spread the ideals of the French Revolution across much of the continent, such as popular sovereignty, equality before the law, republicanism and administrative reorganisation while his legal reforms had a major impact worldwide. Nationalism, especially in Germany, emerged in reaction against him.
Animated map of the growth and decline of the French colonial empire
French Poilus posing with their war-torn flag in 1917, during World War I
Charles de Gaulle took an active part in many major events of the 20th century: a hero of World War I, leader of the Free French during World War II, he then became President, where he facilitated decolonisation, maintained France as a major power and overcame the revolt of May 1968.
The May 68 protests, a massive social movement, would ultimately led to many social changes, such as the right to abortion, women empowerment as well as the decriminalisation of homosexuality.
Republican marches were organised across France after the January 2015 attacks perpetrated by Islamist terrorists; they became the largest public rallies in French history.
A relief map of Metropolitan France, showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Mont Blanc, the highest summit in Western Europe, marks the border with Italy.
Geological formations near Roussillon, Vaucluse
Reed bed on the Gironde estuary, the largest estuary in Western Europe
Köppen climate classification map of Metropolitan France
Marine (blue), regional (green) and national (red) parks in France (2019)
The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the same geographic scale
Official logo of the French Republic
The National Assembly is the lower house of the French Parliament.
The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
88 states and governments are part of La Francophonie, which promotes values of democracy, multilingualism and cultural diversity. France has been a key member of this global organisation since its inception in 1970.
The European Parliament in Strasbourg, near the border with (Germany). France is a founding member of all EU institutions.
Examples of France's military. Clockwise from top left: nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle; a Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft; French Chasseurs Alpins patrolling the valleys of Kapisa province in Afghanistan; a Leclerc tank
La Défense (as seen from the Eiffel Tower) was in 2017 ranked by Ernst & Young as the leading Central business district in continental Europe, and the fourth in the world.
Composition of the French economy (GDP) in 2016 by expenditure type
Champagne is from the Champagne region in Northeast France.
The Eiffel Tower is the world's most-visited paid monument, an icon of both Paris and France.
The Château de Marqueyssac, featuring a French formal garden, is one of the Remarkable Gardens of France.
Belleville Nuclear Power Plant. France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power, the highest percentage in the world.
A TGV Duplex crossing the Cize–Bolozon viaduct. The train can reach a maximum speed of 360 km/h.
Air France is one of the biggest airlines in the world.
France is in 2020 the biggest national financial contributor to the European Space Agency, which conceived the Ariane rocket family, launched from French Guiana (Ariane 5 pictured).
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble
Population density in France by arrondissement. The main urban areas are visible, notably the Paris (centre-north), Lille (north), Marseille (southeast) and Lyon (centre-southeast) urban areas.
Notre-Dame de Reims is the Roman Catholic cathedral where the Kings of France were crowned until 1825.
The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, a teaching hospital in Paris, is one of Europe's largest hospitals.
The École normale supérieure (ENS) in Paris, established in the end of the 18th century, produces more Nobel Prize laureates per capita than any other institution in the world.
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830) portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", as the French put it, this painting has become the primary symbol of the French Republic.
The Louvre Museum, widely recognised as one of the finest art museums in the world, was in 2019 both the largest and the most-visited museum in the world.
Claude Monet, founder of the Impressionist movement
Le Penseur by Auguste Rodin (1902), Musée Rodin, Paris
Saint Louis's Sainte-Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.
Place de la Bourse in Bordeaux, an example of French baroque architecture
The Capitole de Toulouse hosts Toulouse City Hall.
French literary figures. Clockwise from top left: Molière is the most played author in the Comédie-Française; Victor Hugo is one of the most important French novelist and poet; 19th-century poet, writer and translator Charles Baudelaire; 20th-century philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre
René Descartes, founder of modern Western philosophy
Claude Debussy
Serge Gainsbourg, one of the world's most influential popular musicians
Daft Punk, pioneers of the French house movement
A Palme d'Or from the Cannes Film Festival, one of the "Big Three" film festivals alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival
Louis de Funès, often called "France's favourite actor", has played over 130 roles in film and over 100 on stage.
Chanel's headquarters on Place Vendôme, Paris
The Parisian headquarters of Agence France-Presse, one of the world's oldest and leading news agencies
Le Figaro was founded in 1826; many of France's most prominent authors have written in its columns over the decades, and it is still considered a newspaper of record.
Admittance of Germaine Tillion, Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz, Pierre Brossolette and Jean Zay at the Pantheon, a mausoleum for distinguished French people, in 2015
Sculpture of Marianne, a common national personification of the French Republic
French wines are usually made to accompany French cuisine.
Some French cheeses with fruits
Starting in 1903, the Tour de France is the oldest and most prestigious of Grands Tours, and the world's most famous cycling race.
Pierre de Coubertin, father of the modern Olympic Games
Zidane was named the best European footballer of the past 50 years in a 2004 UEFA poll.

France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.