Paris Peace Conference, 1919

Paris Peace ConferenceVersailles Peace Conference1919 Paris Peace ConferenceParis Peace Conference of 1919Versailles ConferencePeace ConferenceParis Peace Conference in 1919Peace Conference in ParisConference of VersaillesParis Peace Conference (1919)
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as the Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting in 1919 of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.wikipedia
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List of participants to Paris Peace Conference, 1919

32 countries and nationalities
The conference involved diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities, and its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations, as well as the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; the imposition of reparations upon Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect ethnic boundaries.
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919 gathered 27 nations at the Palace of Versailles to shape the future after World War I.

League of Nations

The League of NationsCouncil of the League of NationsLeague
The conference involved diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities, and its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations, as well as the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; the imposition of reparations upon Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect ethnic boundaries.
It was founded on 10 January 1920 following the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War; in 1919 US President Woodrow Wilson was to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his role as the leading architect of the league.

World War I reparations

reparationswar reparationsreparations payments
The conference involved diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities, and its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations, as well as the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; the imposition of reparations upon Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect ethnic boundaries.
World War I reparations were war reparations imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.

Treaty of Versailles

Versailles TreatyVersaillesVersailles Peace Treaty
The main result was the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, which in section 231 laid the guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies".
Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty.

Georges Clemenceau

ClemenceauGeorges ClémenceauClémenceau
The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando.
He achieved these goals in the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando

Vittorio OrlandoOrlandoDetails
The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando.
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (19 May 1860 – 1 December 1952) was an Italian statesman, known for representing Italy in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino.

Woodrow Wilson

WilsonPresident WilsonPresident Woodrow Wilson
The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando.
After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, Wilson and other Allied leaders took part in the Paris Peace Conference, where Wilson advocated for the establishment of a multilateral organization, per his "fourteenth point".

David Lloyd George

Lloyd GeorgeRt Hon David Lloyd GeorgeDavid Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor
The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando. The British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, eventually relented, and convinced the reluctant Americans to accept the presence of delegations from Canada, India, Australia, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa.
Lloyd George was a major player in Paris Peace Conference of 1919 but the situation in Ireland worsened that year, erupting into the Irish War of Independence which lasted until Lloyd George negotiated independence for the Irish Free State in 1921.

Big Four (World War I)

Big FourCouncil of FourThe Big Four (World War I)
The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando.
The Big Four or the Four Nations refer to the four top Allied powers of the World War I and their leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The five major powers (France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the United States) controlled the Conference.
In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations.

Racial Equality Proposal

racial equality clauseJapanese racial equality proposalRacial Equality Proposal, 1919
Numerous other nations did send delegations in order to appeal for various unsuccessful additions to the treaties; parties lobbied for causes ranging from independence for the countries of the South Caucasus to Japan's unsuccessful demand for racial equality amongst the other Great Powers.
The Racial Equality Proposal was an amendment to the treaty under consideration at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference offered by Japan.

Paris

Paris, FranceParísParisian
As the conference's decisions were enacted unilaterally, and largely on the whims of the Big Four, for its duration Paris was effectively the center of a world government, which deliberated over and implemented the sweeping changes to the political geography of Europe.
In the years after the peace conference, the city was also home to growing numbers of students and activists from French colonies and other Asian and African countries, who later became leaders of their countries, such as Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai and Léopold Sédar Senghor.

Edward M. House

Colonel HouseEdward Mandell HouseEdward House
Wilson wanted no mandates for the United States; his top advisor Colonel House was deeply involved in awarding the others.
Having a self-effacing manner, he did not hold office but was an "executive agent", Wilson's chief advisor on European politics and diplomacy during World War I (1914–18) and at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.

Treaty of Trianon

TrianonTrianon TreatyTrianon Peace Treaty
On 1 December 1919, the Hungarian delegation was officially invited to the Versailles Peace Conference; however, the newly defined borders of Hungary were nearly concluded without the presence of the Hungarians.

Billy Hughes

HughesWilliam Morris HughesWilliam Hughes
The Australian delegation, led by the Australian Prime Minister, Billy Hughes, fought hard for its demands: reparations, the annexation of German New Guinea and rejection of the Japanese Racial Equality Proposal.
He made a significant impression on other world leaders at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, where he secured Australian control of the former German New Guinea.

Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau

Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-RantzauCount Brockdorff-RantzauCount Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau
The Germans rejected the French offers because they considered the French overtures to be a trap to trick them into accepting the Versailles treaty "as is" and because the German foreign minister, Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau thought that the United States was more likely to reduce the severity of the peace terms than France.
In this capacity, he led the German delegation at the Paris Peace Conference but resigned over the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.

René Massigli

In May 1919 the diplomat René Massigli was sent on several secret missions to Berlin.
During his meetings, Massigli let the Germans know of the deep divisions between the "Big Three" at the Paris Peace Conference, namely Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd George and Georges Clemenceau.

Sidney Sonnino

Baron SonninoSonninoSydney Sonnino
Orlando, unable to speak English, conducted negotiations jointly with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino, a protestant of British origins.
He also was the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs during the First World War, representing Italy at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

U.S.–Hungarian Peace Treaty (1921)

Hungary1921 U.S.-Hungarian Peace Treaty1921 U.S.–Hungarian Peace Treaty
The League of Nations proved controversial in the United States as critics said it subverted the powers of Congress to declare war; the U.S. Senate did not ratify any of the peace treaties and the U.S. never joined the League – instead, the Harding administration of 1921-1923 concluded new treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary.
In 1919, the victorious Allied Powers held a peace conference in Paris to formulate peace treaties with the defeated Central Powers.

King–Crane Commission

King-Crane CommissionKing–Crane Commission of Enquiry consultationofficial government findings
Eventually it became the purely American King–Crane Commission, which toured all Syria and Palestine during the summer of 1919, taking statements and sampling opinion.
The Commission began as an outgrowth of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Originally meant to be led by French, British, Italian and American representatives, it ended as an investigation conducted solely by the United States government after the other countries withdrew to avoid the risk of being "confronted by recommendations from their own appointed delegates which might conflict with their policies".

Government of Ireland Act 1920

Government of Ireland ActGovernment of Ireland BillFourth Home Rule Bill
Britain had planned to legislate for two Irish Home Rule states (without Dominion status), and did so in 1920.
A delay ensued because of the effective end of the First World War in November 1918, the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, and the Treaty of Versailles that was signed in June 1919.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as the Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting in 1919 of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
The Big Four (Britain, France, the United States, and Italy) imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series of treaties agreed at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, the most well known being the German peace treaty—the Treaty of Versailles.

Dominion of Newfoundland

NewfoundlanddominionBritish dominion
The British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, eventually relented, and convinced the reluctant Americans to accept the presence of delegations from Canada, India, Australia, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa.
After the war, Newfoundland along with the other dominions sent a separate delegation to the Paris Peace Conference but, unlike the other dominions, Newfoundland neither signed the Treaty of Versailles in her own right nor sought separate membership in the League of Nations.

U.S.–Austrian Peace Treaty (1921)

Austria1921 U.S.–Austrian Peace TreatyU.S.-Austrian Peace Treaty
The League of Nations proved controversial in the United States as critics said it subverted the powers of Congress to declare war; the U.S. Senate did not ratify any of the peace treaties and the U.S. never joined the League – instead, the Harding administration of 1921-1923 concluded new treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary.
In 1919, the victorious Allied Powers held a peace conference in Paris to formulate peace treaties with the defeated Central Powers.

Great power

Great Powersworld powermajor power
Numerous other nations did send delegations in order to appeal for various unsuccessful additions to the treaties; parties lobbied for causes ranging from independence for the countries of the South Caucasus to Japan's unsuccessful demand for racial equality amongst the other Great Powers.
During the Paris Peace Conference, the "Big Four" – France, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States – held noticeably more power and influence on the proceedings and outcome of the treaties than Japan.