Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson diseaseParkinson’sParkinsonsparalysis agitansanti-ParkinsonianParkinsonianMorbus ParkinsonParkinson's disease (PD)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.wikipedia
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Neurodegeneration

neurodegenerativeneurodegenerative diseaseneurodegenerative diseases
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Many neurodegenerative diseases – including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease – occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes.

Parkinsonism

Parkinson's syndromeParkinsonianParkinsonian syndrome
The main motor symptoms are collectively called "parkinsonism", or a "parkinsonian syndrome".
It is found in Parkinson's disease (PD), after which it is named, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and many other conditions.

Tremor

tremblingshakingmuscle tremor
Early in the disease, the most obvious symptoms are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking.
Neurological disorders or conditions that can produce tremor include multiple sclerosis, stroke, traumatic brain injury, chronic kidney disease and a number of neurodegenerative diseases that damage or destroy parts of the brainstem or the cerebellum, Parkinson's disease being the one most often associated with tremor.

Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease

antiparkinsonianantiparkinsonantiparkinsonian agent
Initial treatment is typically with the antiparkinson medication levodopa (L-DOPA), followed by dopamine agonists when levodopa becomes less effective.
Antiparkinson medications are a class of drugs which are used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Dopamine agonist

dopamine agonistsdopamine receptor agonistdopamine
Initial treatment is typically with the antiparkinson medication levodopa (L-DOPA), followed by dopamine agonists when levodopa becomes less effective.
The DA are used in Parkinson’s disease and, to a lesser extent, to treat depression, hyperprolactinemia and restless leg syndrome.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
This results in not enough dopamine in this region of the brain.
Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra.

Lewy body

Lewy bodiesLewy body diseaseLewy neurites
The cause of this cell death is poorly understood, but it involves the build-up of proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons.
Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregations of protein that develop inside nerve cells, contributing to Parkinson's disease (PD), the Lewy body dementias (Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies), and some other disorders.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
Depression and anxiety are also common, occurring in more than a third of people with PD. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems.
Depression often coexists with physical disorders common among the elderly, such as stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Substantia nigra

substantia nigra pars reticulatanigralsubstantia nigra pars compacta
The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain.
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

Deep brain stimulation

deep brain stimulatorsdeep-brain stimulationdeep brain stimulation (DBS)
Surgery to place microelectrodes for deep brain stimulation has been used to reduce motor symptoms in severe cases where drugs are ineffective.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the placement of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia.

Michael J. Fox

Michael J FoxHench at HomeMichael J. Fox Theatre
People with Parkinson's who have increased the public's awareness of the condition include actor Michael J. Fox, Olympic cyclist Davis Phinney, professional boxer Muhammad Ali, and actor Alan Alda.
Fox was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 1991 at age 29, and disclosed his condition to the public in 1998.

Parkinson plus syndrome

atypical parkinsonian syndromeatypical parkinsonismParkinson plus
Several neurodegenerative disorders also may present with parkinsonism and are sometimes referred to as "atypical parkinsonism" or "Parkinson plus" syndromes (illnesses with parkinsonism plus some other features distinguishing them from PD).
Parkinson-plus syndromes is a group of neurodegenerative diseases featuring the classical features of Parkinson's disease (tremor, rigidity, akinesia/bradykinesia, and postural instability) with additional features that distinguish them from simple idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD).

Hypokinesia

bradykinesiaakinesiahypokinetic
Early in the disease, the most obvious symptoms are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking.
Patients with hypokinetic disorders like Parkinson's disease experience muscle rigidity and an inability to produce movement.

James Parkinson

ParkinsonWorld Parkinson's DayJames
The disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson, who published the first detailed description in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in 1817.
He is best known for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in which he was the first to describe "paralysis agitans", a condition that would later be renamed Parkinson's disease by Jean-Martin Charcot.

Davis Phinney

People with Parkinson's who have increased the public's awareness of the condition include actor Michael J. Fox, Olympic cyclist Davis Phinney, professional boxer Muhammad Ali, and actor Alan Alda.
He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease when aged 40.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

supranuclear palsysupranuclear palsy, progressiveProgressive Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia
They include multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
PSP may be mistaken for other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

Parkinsonian gait

festinationGait freezingfreezing of gait
Other recognized motor signs and symptoms include gait and posture disturbances such as festination (rapid shuffling steps and a forward-flexed posture when walking with no flexed arm swing).
Parkinsonian gait (or festinating gait, from Latin festinare [to hurry]) is the type of gait exhibited by patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD).

Synucleinopathy

synucleinopathiesα-synucleinopathies
Scientists sometimes refer to Parkinson’s disease as a synucleinopathy (due to an abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain) to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease where the brain accumulates tau protein.
There are three main types of synucleinopathy: Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA).

Dementia with Lewy bodies

Lewy body diseaseLewy body dementiaDLB
They include multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Other conditions that share some symptoms of DLB include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, delirium, and rarely, psychosis.

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome

The dopamine dysregulation syndrome – with wanting of medication leading to overusage – is a rare complication of levodopa use.
It typically occurs in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have taken dopamine agonist medications for an extended period of time.

Corticobasal degeneration

Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration
They include multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Diagnosis is difficult, as symptoms are often similar to those of other disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and dementia with Lewy bodies, and a definitive diagnosis of CBD can only be made upon neuropathologic examination.

Tau protein

tauMAPTtau proteins
Scientists sometimes refer to Parkinson’s disease as a synucleinopathy (due to an abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain) to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease where the brain accumulates tau protein.
Pathologies and dementias of the nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are associated with tau proteins that have become defective and no longer stabilize microtubules properly.

Neurosurgery

neurosurgeonbrain surgeryneurosurgical
Surgery to place microelectrodes for deep brain stimulation has been used to reduce motor symptoms in severe cases where drugs are ineffective.
Common applications of neuropathology include studying samples of tissue in patients who have Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mitochondria disease, and any disorder that has neural deterioration in the brain or spinal cord.

Gait abnormality

gait abnormalitiesgaitgait ataxia
Early in the disease, the most obvious symptoms are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking.
Gait abnormality is also common in persons with nervous system problems such as cauda equina syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease.

Parkinson's disease dementia

Dementia
Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease.
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is dementia that is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD).