Parliament of Australia

Australian ParliamentFederal ParliamentParliamentCommonwealth ParliamentMPAustralian Federal ParliamentFederalParliament HouseCommonwealthAustralian Parliaments
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.wikipedia
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Australian Senate

SenateSenatorAustralian Senator
It consists of three elements: the Crown (represented by the Governor-General), the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.

Governor-General of Australia

Governor-GeneralGovernor General of AustraliaGovernor General
It consists of three elements: the Crown (represented by the Governor-General), the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The functions of the governor-general include appointing ministers, judges, and ambassadors; giving royal assent to legislation passed by parliament; issuing writs for election; and bestowing Australian honours.

Australian Capital Territory

ACTA.C.T.ACT, Australia
The upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, and two each for the territories, Northern Territory (including Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands) and the Australian Capital Territory (including Norfolk Island and the Jervis Bay Territory). The two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House (except in a rare joint sitting) on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
This includes the Parliament of Australia, the High Court of Australia, the Australian Defence Force Academy and the Australian War Memorial.

Government of Australia

Australian GovernmentFederal GovernmentCommonwealth Government
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into three branches: the executive branch, composed of the Federal Executive Council, presided by the Governor-General, which delegates powers to the Cabinet of Australia, led by the Prime Minister; the legislative branch, composed of the Parliament of Australia's House of Representatives and Senate; and the judicial branch, composed of the High Court of Australia and the federal courts.

Parliament House, Canberra

Parliament HouseNew Parliament HouseAustralian Parliament House
The two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House (except in a rare joint sitting) on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
Parliament House is the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia, located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.

Australian Labor Party

LaborLabor PartyALP
This tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major political groups, the centre-right Coalition (consisting of the Liberal and National Parties) and the centre-left Labor Party. From the beginning of Federation until 1918, first-past-the-post voting was used in order to elect members of the House of Representatives but since the 1918 Swan by-election which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote due to vote splitting amongst the conservative parties, the Nationalist Party government, a predecessor of the modern-day Liberal Party of Australia, changed the lower house voting system to Instant-runoff voting, which in Australia is known as full preferential voting, as of the subsequent 1919 election.
The ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901.

Double dissolution

dissolved both Housesdouble dissolution electiondouble-dissolution
A deadlock-breaking mechanism known as a double dissolution can be used to dissolve the full Senate as well as the House in the event that the Senate refuses to pass a piece of legislation passed by the House. In 1984, legislation was passed with the intention of changing the way long and short term seats are allocated following a double dissolution election, however the method has not been used, despite two bipartisan senate resolutions in favour of change.
A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks in the bicameral Parliament of Australia between the House of Representatives (lower house) and the Senate (upper house).

1901 Australian federal election

first federal election19011901 federal election
The Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1 January 1901 with the federation of the six Australian colonies. The inaugural election took place on 29 and 30 March and the first Australian Parliament was opened on 9 May 1901 in Melbourne by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall and York, later King George V.
The 1901 Australian federal election for the inaugural Parliament of Australia was held in Australia on Friday 29 March and Saturday 30 March 1901.

Joint meetings of the Australian Parliament

joint sittingAddressed joint meeting of ParliamentAddressed the Australian Parliament
The two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House (except in a rare joint sitting) on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
Australia has a bicameral federal parliament, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Norfolk Island

NorfolkNFNorfolk Islands
The upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, and two each for the territories, Northern Territory (including Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands) and the Australian Capital Territory (including Norfolk Island and the Jervis Bay Territory).
The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia accepted the territory by the Norfolk Island Act 1913 (Cth), subject to British agreement; the Act received the assent on 19 December 1913.

Old Parliament House, Canberra

Old Parliament HouseParliament HouseProvisional Parliament House
The construction of Old Parliament House, as it is called today, commenced on 28 August 1923 and was completed in early 1927.
Old Parliament House, known formerly as the Provisional Parliament House, was the seat of the Parliament of Australia from 1927 to 1988.

John Smith Murdoch

Murdoch
In the meantime, John Smith Murdoch, the Commonwealth's Chief Architect, worked on the design as part of his official duties.
John Smith Murdoch (29 September 1862 – 21 May 1945) was the chief architect for the Commonwealth of Australia from 1919, responsible for designing many government buildings, most notably the Provisional Parliament House in Canberra, the home of the Parliament of Australia from 1927 to 1988.

Royal Exhibition Building

Exhibition BuildingMelbourne Exhibition BuildingRoyal Exhibition Building, Melbourne
The only building in Melbourne that was large enough to accommodate the 14,000 guests was the western annexe of the Royal Exhibition Building.
It was built to host the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880–81, and then hosted the even larger Centennial International Exhibition in 1888, and the formal opening of the first Parliament of Australia in 1901.

Fraser Government

FraserGovernment1975 to 1983
In 1978 the Fraser Government decided to proceed with a new building on Capital Hill, and the Parliament House Construction Authority was created.
It was made up of members of a Liberal-Country party coalition in the Australian Parliament from November 1975 to March 1983.

Parliament House, Melbourne

Parliament HouseParliament House of VictoriaVictorian Parliament House
After the official opening, from 1901 to 1927 the Parliament met in Parliament House, Melbourne, which it borrowed from the Parliament of Victoria (which sat, instead, in the Royal Exhibition Building until 1927).
Between 1901 and 1927, it served as the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia, during the period when Melbourne was the temporary national capital.

Liberal Party of Australia

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
This tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major political groups, the centre-right Coalition (consisting of the Liberal and National Parties) and the centre-left Labor Party. From the beginning of Federation until 1918, first-past-the-post voting was used in order to elect members of the House of Representatives but since the 1918 Swan by-election which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote due to vote splitting amongst the conservative parties, the Nationalist Party government, a predecessor of the modern-day Liberal Party of Australia, changed the lower house voting system to Instant-runoff voting, which in Australia is known as full preferential voting, as of the subsequent 1919 election.
During McMahon's period in office, Neville Bonner joined the Senate and became the first Indigenous Australian in the Australian Parliament.

George V

King George VGeorge V of the United Kingdomthe King
The Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1 January 1901 with the federation of the six Australian colonies. The inaugural election took place on 29 and 30 March and the first Australian Parliament was opened on 9 May 1901 in Melbourne by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall and York, later King George V.
In Australia, the Duke opened the first session of the Australian Parliament upon the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Casual vacancies in the Australian Parliament

casual vacancycasual vacanciessection 15 of the Constitution
Section 15 of the Constitution provides that a casual vacancy of a State Senator shall be filled by the State Parliament.

House of Representatives (Australia)

Australian House of RepresentativesHouse of RepresentativesMP
It consists of three elements: the Crown (represented by the Governor-General), the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the upper house being the Senate.

1919 Australian federal election

19191919 federal election1919 election
From the beginning of Federation until 1918, first-past-the-post voting was used in order to elect members of the House of Representatives but since the 1918 Swan by-election which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote due to vote splitting amongst the conservative parties, the Nationalist Party government, a predecessor of the modern-day Liberal Party of Australia, changed the lower house voting system to Instant-runoff voting, which in Australia is known as full preferential voting, as of the subsequent 1919 election.
The 1919 Australian federal election was held on 13 December 1919 to elect members to the Parliament of Australia.

Northern Territory

Northern Territory of AustraliaNTNorthern Territories
The upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, and two each for the territories, Northern Territory (including Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands) and the Australian Capital Territory (including Norfolk Island and the Jervis Bay Territory).
The Northern Territory is represented in the federal parliament by two members in the House of Representatives and two members in the Senate.

High Court of Australia

High CourtAustralian High CourtSupreme Court
In 1977, the High Court ordered that the size of the House be reduced from 127 to 124 members to comply with the nexus provision.
It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the states and territories, and the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia and thereby shape the development of federalism in Australia.

Bob Hawke

HawkeHawke governmentRobert Hawke
Full-preference preferential voting re-elected the Bob Hawke government at the 1990 election, the first time in federal history that Labor had obtained a net benefit from preferential voting.
He was also Member of Parliament (MP) for Wills from 1980 to 1992.

Section 13 of the Constitution of Australia

section 13 of the Constitutionconsequence of which methodallocate him a three-year rather than a six-year Senate term
In 1984, legislation was passed with the intention of changing the way long and short term seats are allocated following a double dissolution election, however the method has not been used, despite two bipartisan senate resolutions in favour of change.
Section 13 of the Constitution of Australia provides for three aspects of the terms of members of the Australian Senate: the timing of elections, the commencement date of their terms and for the Senate to allocate long (six-year) and short (three-year) terms following a double dissolution of the Parliament of Australia.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
Through both chambers, however, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster system.
In the Australian Parliament, in both the Upper House (Senate) and the Lower House (House of Representatives), the rows of chairs and desks are rounded at the end, opposite to the Speaker's Chair.