Parliament of Canada

ParliamentCanadian ParliamentMPMember of Parliamentfederal parliamentparliamentaryparliamentarianMembers of ParliamentCanadian Member of ParliamentCanada's Parliament
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.wikipedia
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Canadian federalism

federalismCanadian federalistCanadian federation
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
There are also three territorial governments in the far north, which exercise powers delegated by the federal parliament, and municipal governments which exercise powers delegated by the province or territory.

Parliament Hill

Parliament BuildingsParliamentCanadian Parliament Buildings
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
Its Gothic revival suite of buildings is the home of the Parliament of Canada and has architectural elements of national symbolic importance.

Senate of Canada

SenatorSenateCanadian Senator
The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by a viceroy, the Governor General; an upper house, the Senate; and a lower house, the House of Commons.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the monarch (represented by the governor general).

House of Commons of Canada

House of CommonsMPMember of Parliament
The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by a viceroy, the Governor General; an upper house, the Senate; and a lower house, the House of Commons.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general) and the Senate of Canada.

Prorogation in Canada

prorogationprorogueprorogued
The Governor General also summons Parliament, while either the viceroy or monarch can prorogue or dissolve Parliament, the latter in order to call a general election.
Prorogation is the end of a parliamentary session in the Parliament of Canada and the parliaments of its provinces and territories.

Monarchy of Canada

Queen of CanadaCanadian monarchCanadian Royal Family
The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by a viceroy, the Governor General; an upper house, the Senate; and a lower house, the House of Commons.
Thus, within a constitutional monarchy the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with the sovereign normally exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities largely carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges and justices of the peace.

Prime Minister of Canada

Prime MinisterCanadian Prime MinisterPrime Ministers
The Governor General summons and appoints the 105 senators on the advice of the Prime Minister, while the 338 members of the House of Commons—called members of Parliament (MPs)—each represent an electoral district, commonly referred to as a riding, and are directly elected by Canadian voters.
The two groups, with the authority of the Parliament of Canada, manage the Government of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces.

43rd Canadian Parliament

43rd43rd Parliament2019–present
The most recent Parliament, summoned by Governor General Julie Payette in 2019, is the 43rd since Confederation.
The 43rd Canadian Parliament is the upcoming session of the Parliament of Canada, which will begin from December 5, 2019, following the 2019 federal election held on October 21, 2019.

Centre Block

Hall of HonourCanadian Parliamentparliament buildings
Following the burning of the Centre Block on 3 February 1916, the City of London, England, donated a replacement, which is still used today.
The Centre Block (Édifice du Centre) is the main building of the Canadian parliamentary complex on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, Ontario, containing the original House of Commons and Senate chambers, as well as the offices of a number of members of parliament, senators, and senior administration for both legislative houses.

Ottawa

Ottawa, OntarioOttawa, CanadaOttawa, ON
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
Across the canal to the west lies Centretown and Downtown Ottawa, which is the city's financial and commercial hub and home to the Parliament of Canada and numerous federal government department headquarters, notably the Privy Council Office.

Manitoba

MBManitoba, CanadaProvince of Manitoba
The principle underlying the Senate's composition is equality amongst Canada's geographic regions (called Divisions in the Constitution): 24 for Ontario, 24 for Quebec, 24 for the Maritimes (10 for Nova Scotia, 10 for New Brunswick, and four for Prince Edward Island), and 24 for the Western provinces (six each for Manitoba, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Alberta).
The resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province.

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
The principle underlying the Senate's composition is equality amongst Canada's geographic regions (called Divisions in the Constitution): 24 for Ontario, 24 for Quebec, 24 for the Maritimes (10 for Nova Scotia, 10 for New Brunswick, and four for Prince Edward Island), and 24 for the Western provinces (six each for Manitoba, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Alberta).
In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province.

Section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

notwithstanding clausesection 33Section Thirty-three of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The powers of Parliament are also limited by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, though most of its provisions can be overridden by use of the notwithstanding clause.
It is commonly known as the notwithstanding clause (or la disposition dérogatoire in French), or as the override power, and it allows Parliament or provincial legislatures to temporarily override certain portions of the ''Charter.

Speaker of the House of Commons (Canada)

Speaker of the House of Commons of CanadaSpeaker of the House of CommonsSpeaker
Each of the Parliament's two chambers is presided over by a speaker; that for the Senate is a member of that house appointed by the Governor General, as advised by the prime minister, while the equivalent for the House of Commons is a member of parliament, who is elected by the other members of that body.
The Speaker of the House of Commons (Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house of the Parliament of Canada and is elected at the beginning of each new parliament by fellow Members of Parliament (MPs).

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Charter of Rights and FreedomsCharterCharter of Rights
The powers of Parliament are also limited by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, though most of its provisions can be overridden by use of the notwithstanding clause.
The British Parliament formally enacted the Charter as a part of the Canada Act 1982 at the request of the Parliament of Canada in 1982, the result of the efforts of the government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

Usher of the Black Rod (Canada)

Usher of the Black RodGentleman Usher of the Black RodUsher of the Black Rod of the Senate of Canada
The Usher of the Black Rod of the Senate of Canada is the most senior protocol position in Parliament, being the personal messenger to the legislature of the sovereign and Governor General.
The Usher of the Black Rod (often shortened to Black Rod; Huissier du Bâton Noir) is the most senior protocol position in the Parliament of Canada.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.

Court system of Canada

courtsjudgessuperior court
Laws violating any part of the constitution are invalid and may be ruled unconstitutional by the courts.
Eventually, in 1875, the Liberal government of Alexander Mackenzie passed an Act of Parliament that established the Supreme Court.

Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada

Legislative AssemblyLegislative Assembly of CanadaAssembly
The original mace for the Senate was that used in the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada after 1849, while that of the House of Commons was inherited from the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, first used in 1845.
The British North America Act of 1867 divided the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, each province having its own Legislative Assembly, as well as representation in the Parliament of Canada.

Constitution Act, 1867

British North America Act of 1867British North America Act, 1867British North America Act
The sovereign's place in the legislature, formally called the Queen-in-Parliament, is defined by the Constitution Act, 1867, and various conventions.
The Parliament of Canada comprises the Queen and two chambers (the House of Commons of Canada and the Senate of Canada), as created by section 17.

Library of Parliament

LibraryLibrarian of ParliamentLibrary of Parliament of Canada
Another key official is the Parliamentary Librarian, a position established in 1871 under the Library of Parliament Act, charged with running the Library of Parliament.
The Library of Parliament (Bibliothèque du Parlement) is the main information repository and research resource for the Parliament of Canada.

Parliamentary Librarian of Canada

Parliamentary LibrarianDr. Alpheus Todd (1821–1884)
Another key official is the Parliamentary Librarian, a position established in 1871 under the Library of Parliament Act, charged with running the Library of Parliament.
The Parliamentary Librarian of Canada is one of the key officials of the Parliament of Canada.

Ceremonial mace

macemacesparliamentary mace
The upper and lower houses do, however, each contain a mace, which indicates the authority of the Queen-in-Parliament and the privilege granted to that body by her, both bearing a crown at their apex.
The Mace continued to be used by the Union Parliament in Toronto and Quebec until Confederation in 1867, when it was taken to the Parliament of Canada in Ottawa, where it remained in the House of Commons until 1916.

Privacy Commissioner of Canada

Privacy CommissionerOffice of the Privacy Commissioner of Canadafederal privacy commissioner
Other officers of Parliament include the Auditor General, Chief Electoral Officer, Official Languages Commissioner, Privacy Commissioner, Access to Information Commissioner, Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner, Public Sector Integrity Commissioner, and Commissioner of Lobbying.
The Privacy Commissioner of Canada (Commissaire à la protection de la vie privée du Canada) is a non-partisan ombudsman and officer of the Parliament of Canada that investigates complaints filed by Canadians who feel their privacy rights have been violated and reports to Parliament on whether there has been a violation of the Privacy Act.

Opening of the Canadian parliament

opening of ParliamentOpening of the Parliament of Canada
The new parliamentary session is marked by the opening of Parliament, a ceremony where a range of topics can be addressed in a Speech From the Throne given by the monarch, the Governor General, or a royal delegate.
The opening of the Canadian parliament is the commencement of a session of the Parliament of Canada following a general election.