Parliamentary republic

parliamentaryrepublicceremonial presidencyParliamentary republicsparliamentary systemceremonial presidential systemparliamentary democracyparliamentary republic systempseudo-parliamentary republicdemocratic republic
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).wikipedia
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Parliamentary system

parliamentaryparliamentarismparliamentary democracy
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, and Japan), or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland, Germany, India, and Italy).

President (government title)

PresidentpresidentialPresidents
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.
In parliamentary republics, they are usually, but not always, limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial.

Presidential system

presidentialpresidential republicpresidentialism
Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power. In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
Heads of state of parliamentary republics, largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents.

Executive president

executive presidencyexecutive postExecutive
In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
They contrast with figurehead presidents, common in most parliamentary republics, in which the president serves symbolic, nonpolitical roles (and often is appointed to office by parliament) while the prime minister holds all relevant executive power.

Prime minister

prime ministersPMchief minister
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power. In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarchies (such as Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Malaysia, Morocco, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom), and in parliamentary republics in which the head of state is an elected official (such as Finland, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia (1945–1959), Ireland, Pakistan, Portugal, Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Turkey (1923–2018)).

History of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)

Parliamentary EraChileParliamentary Period
Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891.
Also called "pseudo-parliamentary" period or "Parliamentary Republic", this period was thus named because it established a quasi-parliamentary system based on the interpretation of the 1833 Constitution following the defeat of President José Manuel Balmaceda during the Civil War.

French Fifth Republic

Fifth RepublicFranceFifth French Republic
As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential (or dual-executive) system that split powers between a prime minister as head of government and a president as head of state.

Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with million inhabitants.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, and South Africa), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems.
In a parliamentary republic like India, the president is the de jure executive, even though executive powers are essentially instituted by the prime minister and the Council of Ministers.

Bulgaria

BULBulgarianRepublic of Bulgaria
Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.

Estonia

ESTRepublic of EstoniaEstonian
The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties.

Hungary

HungarianHUNRepublic of Hungary
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.

Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

Commonwealth republicrepublic within the Commonwealthrepublic
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state.
Some states became parliamentary republics, such as Malta or Fiji.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
This was the case in South Africa (which ceased to be a member of the Commonwealth immediately upon becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu.
A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system, it has sevenrecognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40regional parties.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

Latvia

Republic of LatviaLatvianLAT
Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic and a very highly developed country according to the United Nations Human Development Index.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyz RepublicKyrgyzKyrghyzstan
Since independence, the sovereign state has officially been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, revolts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891.
All South American countries are presidential republics with the exceptions of Peru, which is a semi-presidential republic, and Suriname, a parliamentary republic.

Moldova

Republic of MoldovaMDAMoldavian
Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government.

Slovenia

SloveneSlovenianRepublic of Slovenia
One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is now a parliamentary republic and member nation of the European Union, United Nations, and NATO.

Albania

Republic of AlbaniaAlbanianALB
Albania is a parliamentary constitutional republic and sovereign state whose politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the president functions as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
These states are parliamentary republics and operate similarly to constitutional monarchies with parliamentary systems where the power of the monarch is also greatly circumscribed.

Nepal

Federal Democratic Republic of NepalNepaleseNepali
The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, affirms Nepal as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.

Singapore

Republic of SingaporeSingapore CitySingaporean
Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government.