Parliamentary republic

parliamentaryrepublicceremonial presidencyparliamentary systemceremonial presidential systemparliamentary republic systempseudo-parliamentary republicparliamentary democracyparliamentary republican system
[[File:Forms of government parliamentary.svg|right|upright=1.7|thumb|Map of different parliamentary systemswikipedia
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Parliamentary system

parliamentaryparliamentarismparliamentary democracy
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden and Japan), or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland, Germany, India and Italy).

President

presidentialpresidentspresidency
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other government and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.
In parliamentary republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial.

Semi-presidential system

semi-presidentialsemi-presidential republicsemi-presidentialism
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other government and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power. In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial/non-executive (the powers, limitations differ in different parliamentary republics, that this type of president would have tended to be 'reserve'/emergency and non-partisan in nature), figurehead (a president in a dual executive system also has political powers), and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

Presidential system

presidentialpresidential republicpresidentialism
Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power. In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
Heads of state of parliamentary republics, largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents.

Executive president

executive presidencyexecutive postexecutive
In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
They contrast with figurehead presidents, common in most parliamentary republics, in which the president serves symbolic, nonpolitical roles (and often is appointed to office by parliament) while the prime minister holds all relevant executive power.

Prime minister

PMprime ministerschief minister
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other government and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power. In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarchies (such as Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Malaysia, Morocco, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom), and in parliamentary republics in which the head of state is an elected official (such as Finland, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia (1945-1959), Ireland, Pakistan, Portugal, Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Turkey (1923-2018)).

History of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)

ChileParliamentary EraParliamentary Period
Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891.
Also called "pseudo-parliamentary" period or "Parliamentary Republic", this period was thus named because it established a quasi-parliamentary system based on the interpretation of the 1833 Constitution following the defeat of President José Manuel Balmaceda during the Civil War.

Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.

French Fifth Republic

Fifth RepublicFrance5th Republic
As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential, or dual-executive, system that split powers between a Prime Minister as head of government and a President as head of state.

Bangladesh

🇧🇩People's Republic of BangladeshBangladeshi
After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, South Africa and Suriname), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems.
In a parliamentary republic like India, the President is the de jure executive, even though executive powers are essentially instituted by the Prime Minister of India and the Council of Ministers.

Czech Republic

🇨🇿CzechCZE
It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with million inhabitants; its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents.

Bulgaria

🇧🇬BULBulgarian
Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.

Estonia

🇪🇪ESTEstonian
The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties.

Hungary

🇭🇺HungarianHUN
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.

Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

republic within the CommonwealthCommonwealth republicrepublic
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state.
Some states became parliamentary republics, such as Malta or Fiji.

Pakistan

🇵🇰PakistaniPAK
Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic, with Islam as the state religion.

Kyrgyzstan

🇰🇬KyrgyzKyrgyz Republic
Since independence, the sovereign state has officially been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, revolts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.

Latvia

🇱🇻LatvianRepublic of Latvia
Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic and a very highly developed country according to the United Nations Human Development Index.

South America

SouthSouth AmericanSouth-
Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891.
All South American countries are presidential republics with the exceptions of Peru, which is a semi-presidential republic, and Suriname, a parliamentary republic.

Albania

🇦🇱AlbanianRepublic of Albania
Albania is a parliamentary constitutional republic and sovereign state whose politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the president functions as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government.

Republic of Macedonia

MacedoniaMacedonianFYR Macedonia
The sovereign state of Macedonia is a parliamentary republic and member of the UN and of the Council of Europe.

Moldova

🇲🇩Republic of MoldovaMDA
Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
These states are parliamentary republics and operate similarly to constitutional monarchies with parliamentary systems where the power of the monarch is also greatly circumscribed.

Slovenia

🇸🇮SlovenianSlovene
One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, and of NATO.