A report on Parliamentary system

The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
The Reichstag Building in Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries.
Parliament of Canada
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban, parliament building of Bangladesh
Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India
Council of Representatives of Iraq
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem
Parliament of Malaysia
National Assembly of Armenia
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament
Parliament of Australia
Parliament of New Zealand

System of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of the legislature, typically a parliament, to which it is accountable.

- Parliamentary system
The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.

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Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.

Head of state

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Public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.

Public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.

Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.
World's parliamentary states (as of 2022): Republics with an executive president elected by a parliament Parliamentary republics Parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch usually does not personally exercise power Presidential republics, one-party states, and other forms of government
Elizabeth II is the reigning monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and 14 other countries
Charles de Gaulle, President and head of state of the French Fifth Republic (1959–1969)
George Washington, the first president of the United States, set the precedent for an executive head of state in republican systems of government
George V, Emperor of India, and Empress Mary at the Delhi Durbar, 1911.
Tekiso Hati, ambassador of the Kingdom of Lesotho, presenting his credentials to Russian president Vladimir Putin
Daniel B. Shapiro, U.S. ambassador to Israel, presents his credentials to Israeli president Shimon Peres on 3 August 2011
A 1992 Letter of Credence, written in French, for the Czechoslovakian Ambassador to Lithuania, signed by the President of Czechoslovakia and addressed to his Lithuanian counterpart
Albert II, King of the Belgians inspecting troops on Belgium's national day in 2011
Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France and General Jean-Louis Georgelin, Chief of the Defence Staff, reviewing troops during the 2008 Bastille Day military parade on the Champs-Élysées in Paris
Francis, from March 2013 the sovereign of the Vatican City State, an ex officio role of the Pope
Abdulmecid II is the 150th and last Caliph of Islam from Ottoman dynasty
Four generations of Danish kings in 1903: King Christian IX (left), Christian (X) (back), Frederick (VIII) (right), and Frederick (IX) (front)
The National Monument to Emperor Wilhelm I in Berlin, Germany, dedicated 1897, nearly 10 years after his death. The monument was destroyed by the communist government in 1950.
Title page of 1550 Italian edition of Machiavelli's The Prince
Bodin named on title page of Discorsi politici (1602) by Fabio Albergati who compared Bodin's political theories unfavourably with those of Aristotle
Frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (1651)

In a parliamentary system, such as the United Kingdom or India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government.

The British Houses of Parliament are situated within the Palace of Westminster, in London

Westminster system

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The British Houses of Parliament are situated within the Palace of Westminster, in London
Canadian Parliament at night
The Sansad Bhavan (Parliament House) building in New Delhi, India
Knesset Building, Jerusalem
The Australian Senate

The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature.

Presidential system

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Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government comes to power by gaining the confidence of an elected legislature.

Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

Executive (government)

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Part of government that enforces law, and has responsibility for the governance of a state.

Part of government that enforces law, and has responsibility for the governance of a state.

Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

In political systems that use fusion of powers, which typically includes parliamentary systems, only the executive is typically referred to as the government (with the legislature often referred to as "Parliament" or simply "the legislature") which typically is either a part of or requires the confidence of (requires the support/approval of) the legislature and is therefore fused to the legislative power instead of being independent.

Prime ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in 2014. From left: Erna Solberg, Norway; Algirdas Butkevičius, Lithuania; Laimdota Straujuma, Latvia; Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, Iceland; Alexander Stubb, Finland; Anne Sulling, Estonia (trade minister); Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark; Stefan Löfven, Sweden.

Prime minister

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Prime ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in 2014. From left: Erna Solberg, Norway; Algirdas Butkevičius, Lithuania; Laimdota Straujuma, Latvia; Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, Iceland; Alexander Stubb, Finland; Anne Sulling, Estonia (trade minister); Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark; Stefan Löfven, Sweden.
Narendra Modi, The Prime Minister of India
The prime ministers of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), the first Prime minister of India
John A. Macdonald (1815–1891), first Canadian Prime Minister.
Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916–2000), former Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and the first female head of government
British prime minister William Pitt (1759–1806), the youngest head of government at the age of 24.
Countries with prime ministers (blue) and those that formerly had that position (dark red + Mexico).

A prime minister, premier or chief of cabinet is the head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

Palace of Westminster in February 2007

Legislature

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Assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

Assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

Palace of Westminster in February 2007
Map showing the terminology for each country's national legislature
The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010
The British House of Commons, its lower house
The German Bundestag, its theoretical lower house
The Australian Senate, its upper house

In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.

John Locke

Separation of powers

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Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

John Locke
Montesquieu
George Washington at Constitutional Convention of 1787, signing of U.S. Constitution

It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in parliamentary and semi-presidential systems where there can be overlap in membership and functions between different branches, especially the executive and legislative.

President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil and President Christina Kirchner of Argentina in 2015.

Head of government

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Either the highest or the second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

Either the highest or the second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil and President Christina Kirchner of Argentina in 2015.
The heads of government of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference. From left to right, Mackenzie King (Canada), Jan Smuts (South Africa), Winston Churchill (United Kingdom), Peter Fraser (New Zealand), and John Curtin (Australia).

In most parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, and is answerable to at least one chamber of the legislature.

The facing benches of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom are said to contribute to an adversarial style of debate.

Parliament

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Legislative body of government.

Legislative body of government.

The facing benches of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom are said to contribute to an adversarial style of debate.
Knesset, the parliament of Israel
The House of Representatives of Japan
The Federal Assembly of Switzerland
A 1215 edition of Magna Carta, as featured on display at the British Library
The statue of Oliver Cromwell, as it stands outside the House of Commons at the Palace of Westminster
Iceland's parliament house, the Alþingishúsið, at Austurvöllur in Reykjavík, built in 1880–1881, home of one of the oldest still-acting parliaments in the world
The Art Deco-styled session hall of the Parliament House of Finland
The First Sejm in Łęczyca. Recording of laws. A.D. 1180
State Duma of the Federal Assembly of Russia
The debating chamber of the reconvened Scottish Parliament from the public gallery
The Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Spanish Parliament
The Palace of Westminster, London
The centre block of the Parliament of Canada Building in Ottawa
The Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest
The National Diet Building in Tokyo, Japan
Parliament House (Sansad Bhavan), seen from Rajpath in New Delhi, India
Parliament House, Canberra, Australia
The Parliament House of Riigikogu in Tallinn, Estonia
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Parliament of Åland
Greater than 10%<ref>{{cite web |title=10% Share of women in parliament |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/10-share-of-women-in-parliament |website=Our World in Data |access-date=15 February 2020}}</ref>
Greater than 20%<ref>{{cite web |title=20% Share of women in parliament |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/20-share-of-women-in-parliament |website=Our World in Data |access-date=15 February 2020}}</ref>
Greater than 30%<ref>{{cite web |title=30% Share of women in parliament |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/30-share-of-women-in-parliament |website=Our World in Data |access-date=15 February 2020}}</ref>

Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g., the Parliament of Ghana), even where it is not in the official name.

The outgoing Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy (right) congratulates the incoming Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez (left) upon losing the no confidence vote on 1 June 2018.

Motion of no confidence

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Statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, management, etc.) is still deemed fit to hold that position, such as because they are inadequate in some aspect, fail to carry out their obligations, or make decisions that other members feel to be detrimental.

Statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, management, etc.) is still deemed fit to hold that position, such as because they are inadequate in some aspect, fail to carry out their obligations, or make decisions that other members feel to be detrimental.

The outgoing Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy (right) congratulates the incoming Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez (left) upon losing the no confidence vote on 1 June 2018.

In many parliamentary democracies, there are strict time limits for no-confidence motions such as being allowed only once every three, four, or six months.