Parliamentary system

parliamentaryparliamentarismparliamentary democracyparliamentarianismparliamentary democraciesparliamentary republicanti-parliamentarismparliamentary systemsparliamentary governmentanti-parliamentarianism
A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.wikipedia
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Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government.
In a parliamentary system, such as India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government.

Parliament

parliamentary governmentparliamentslegislative assembly
A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name.

Head of government

heads of governmentgovernmentchief executive
In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government.
In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, and is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature.

Parliamentary republic

parliamentaryrepublicceremonial presidency
Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, and Japan), or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland, Germany, India, and Italy).
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

Member of parliament

MPMemberMembers of Parliament
Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, and Japan), or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland, Germany, India, and Italy).
The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom.

Presidential system

presidentialpresidential republicpresidentialism
This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.
A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative.

Prime minister

prime ministersPMchief minister
In practice, King George I's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most often in former colonies of the British Empire that subscribe to a particular brand of parliamentarianism known as the Westminster system.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government that was developed in England, which is now a constituent country within the United Kingdom.

Representative democracy

elected representativerepresentative democraticparliamentary democracy
In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for convening two famous parliaments.
Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, France is a unitary semi-presidential republic, and the United States is a federal presidential republic.

Bicameralism

bicameralbicameral legislaturechambers
In bicameral parliaments, the head of government is generally, though not always, a member of the lower house. A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament (or houses) or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber.
The latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems.

Liberal democracy

constitutional democracyliberal democraticliberal democracies
Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689.
It may have a parliamentary system (such as Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Israel, Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom), a presidential system (such as Indonesia and the United States) or a semi-presidential system (such as France and Romania).

Unicameralism

unicameralunicameral legislatureunicameral parliament
A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament (or houses) or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber.
The main weakness of a unicameral system can be seen as the lack of restraint on the majority, particularly noticeable in parliamentary systems where the leaders of the parliamentary majority also dominate the executive.

President of Ireland

PresidentIrish PresidentPresidents of Ireland
The Constitution of Ireland provides for a parliamentary system of government, under which the role of the head of state is largely a ceremonial one.

Dáil Éireann

DáilDail EireannDail
Its powers are similar to those of lower houses under many other bicameral parliamentary systems and it is by far the dominant branch of the Oireachtas.

Weimar Republic

GermanyWeimar GermanyWeimar
Democracy and parliamentarianism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I, partially imposed by the democratic victors, the United States, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republic and the new Austrian Republic.
At the time, the Socialist movement which represented mostly laborers was split among two major left-wing parties: the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), which called for immediate peace negotiations and favored a soviet-style command economy, and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) also known as "Majority" Social Democratic Party of Germany (MSPD), which supported the war effort and favoured a parliamentary system.

Lower house

lower chamberlowerEuropean Lower Houses
A bicameral parliament usually consists of a directly elected lower house with the power to determine the executive government, and an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house.

Legislature

legislativeLegislative powerlegislative branch
A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.

Semi-parliamentary system

semi-parliamentarismSemi-parliamentary
As in a parliamentary system, the prime minister is responsible to the legislature and can be dismissed by it: this however effectively causes a snap election for both the prime minister and the legislature (a rule commonly expressed by the brocard aut simul stabunt aut simul cadent, Latin for "they will either stand together, or fall together").

Oslo

KristianiaChristianiaOslo, Norway
An example is the city of Oslo, which has an executive council (Byråd) as a part of the parliamentary system.
The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986.

Riksdag

Swedish parliamentParliament of SwedenSwedish Riksdag
Effectively, however, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.

Emperor of Japan

EmperorMonarchJapanese Emperor
The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights.

Executive (government)

executiveexecutive branchExecutive power
A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
In a parliamentary system, a cabinet minister responsible to the legislature is the head of government, while the head of state is usually a largely ceremonial monarch or president.

Cabinet of Bangladesh

CabinetCouncil of MinistersDeputy secretary
The Cabinet is the ultimate decision-making body of the executive within the parliamentary system of government in traditional constitutional theory of Bangladesh.

Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

Basic LawGerman constitutionGrundgesetz
In Germany's parliamentary system of government, the Federal Chancellor runs the government and the day-to-day affairs of state.

Prime Minister of India

Prime MinisterIndian Prime MinisterPrime Ministers
India follows a parliamentary system in which the prime minister is the presiding head of the government and chief of the executive of the government.