Parthenocarpy

parthenocarpic parthenocarpousparthenocarpseedlessseedless watermelonsSeedlessness
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.wikipedia
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Stenospermocarpy

Stenospermocarpy may also produce apparently seedless fruit, but the seeds are actually aborted while they are still small. In some plants, pollination or another stimulation is required for parthenocarpy, termed stimulative parthenocarpy. Plants that do not require pollination or other stimulation to produce parthenocarpic fruit have vegetative parthenocarpy. Seedless cucumbers are an example of vegetative parthenocarpy, seedfull watermelon is an example of stenospermocarpy.As they are immature seeds.(aborted ones)
Stenospermocarpy is the biological mechanism that produces parthenocarpy (seedlessness) in some fruits, notably many table grapes.

Seedless fruit

seedlessseedlessnessapyrene
Stenospermocarpy may also produce apparently seedless fruit, but the seeds are actually aborted while they are still small.
Seedless fruits can develop in one of two ways: either the fruit develops without fertilization (parthenocarpy), or pollination triggers fruit development, but the ovules or embryos abort without producing mature seeds (stenospermocarpy).

Cucumber

cucumbersIndian cucumbercucumis sativus
In some plants, pollination or another stimulation is required for parthenocarpy, termed stimulative parthenocarpy. Plants that do not require pollination or other stimulation to produce parthenocarpic fruit have vegetative parthenocarpy. Seedless cucumbers are an example of vegetative parthenocarpy, seedfull watermelon is an example of stenospermocarpy.As they are immature seeds.(aborted ones)
A few cultivars of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit without pollination.

Banana

bananasbanana treebanana flower
Seedlessness is seen as a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds such as banana, pineapple, orange and grapefruit. Horticulturists have selected and propagated parthenocarpic cultivars of many plants, including banana, fig, cactus pear (Opuntia), breadfruit and eggplant.
Almost all modern edible seedless (parthenocarp) bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana.

Apomixis

apomicticapogamyagamospermy
Parthenocarpy (or stenospermocarpy) occasionally occurs as a mutation in nature; if it affects every flower the plant can no longer sexually reproduce but might be able to propagate by apomixis or by vegetative means. Parthenocarpy is sometimes claimed to be the equivalent of parthenogenesis in animals. That is incorrect because parthenogenesis is a method of asexual reproduction, with embryo formation without fertilization, and parthenocarpy involves fruit formation, without seed formation. The plant equivalent of parthenogenesis is apomixis.
Parthenocarpy, the production of seedless fruits

Cucurbita

squashsquashesmarrow
Parthenocarpy is also desirable in fruit crops that may be difficult to pollinate or fertilize, such as fig, tomato and summer squash.
Seedlessness is known to occur in certain cultivars of C. pepo.

Common fig

figfigscommon fig cultivar
Parthenocarpy is also desirable in fruit crops that may be difficult to pollinate or fertilize, such as fig, tomato and summer squash. Horticulturists have selected and propagated parthenocarpic cultivars of many plants, including banana, fig, cactus pear (Opuntia), breadfruit and eggplant.
Nine subfossil figs of a parthenocarpic (and therefore sterile) type dating to about 9400–9200 BC were found in the early Neolithic village Gilgal I (in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho).

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
The seeds are produced by crossing a diploid parent with a tetraploid parent to produce triploid seeds.
triploid (three sets; 3x), for example seedless watermelons, common in the phylum Tardigrada

Opuntia

prickly pearprickly pear cactusprickly pears
Horticulturists have selected and propagated parthenocarpic cultivars of many plants, including banana, fig, cactus pear (Opuntia), breadfruit and eggplant.
Today, parthenocarpic (seedless) cultivars are also available.

Auxin

auxinsrooting hormonerooting hormones
When sprayed on flowers, any of the plant hormones gibberellin, auxin and cytokinin could stimulate the development of parthenocarpic fruit.
For fruit with unfertilized seeds, exogenous auxin results in parthenocarpy ("virgin-fruit" growth).

Parthenogenesis

parthenogeneticparthenogenicparthenogenetically
Parthenocarpy is sometimes claimed to be the equivalent of parthenogenesis in animals. That is incorrect because parthenogenesis is a method of asexual reproduction, with embryo formation without fertilization, and parthenocarpy involves fruit formation, without seed formation. The plant equivalent of parthenogenesis is apomixis.
Parthenocarpy – plants with seedless fruit

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.

Horticulture

horticulturisthorticulturalcultivation
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.

Fertilisation

fertilizationconceptionfertilized
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.

Ovule

ovulesperispermnucellus
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.

Plant reproductive morphology

monoeciousdioeciousbisexual
Parthenocarpy (or stenospermocarpy) occasionally occurs as a mutation in nature; if it affects every flower the plant can no longer sexually reproduce but might be able to propagate by apomixis or by vegetative means.

Vegetative reproduction

vegetativelyvegetativevegetative propagation
In some plants, pollination or another stimulation is required for parthenocarpy, termed stimulative parthenocarpy. Plants that do not require pollination or other stimulation to produce parthenocarpic fruit have vegetative parthenocarpy. Seedless cucumbers are an example of vegetative parthenocarpy, seedfull watermelon is an example of stenospermocarpy.As they are immature seeds.(aborted ones) Parthenocarpy (or stenospermocarpy) occasionally occurs as a mutation in nature; if it affects every flower the plant can no longer sexually reproduce but might be able to propagate by apomixis or by vegetative means.

Parsnip

parsnipswild parsnipPastinaca sativa
Up to 20% of the fruits of wild parsnip are parthenocarpic.

Seed predation

granivorousgranivoreseeds
The seedless wild parsnip fruit are preferred by certain herbivores and so serve as a "decoy defense" against seed predation.

Juniperus osteosperma

Utah juniperjuniperJunipers
Utah juniper has a similar defense against bird feeding.

Pollination

pollinatedpollinatecross-pollination
The ability to produce seedless fruit when pollination is unsuccessful may be an advantage to a plant because it provides food for the plant's seed dispersers.

Watermelon

watermelonswater melonCitrullus lanatus'' var. ''lanatus
In some plants, pollination or another stimulation is required for parthenocarpy, termed stimulative parthenocarpy. Plants that do not require pollination or other stimulation to produce parthenocarpic fruit have vegetative parthenocarpy. Seedless cucumbers are an example of vegetative parthenocarpy, seedfull watermelon is an example of stenospermocarpy.As they are immature seeds.(aborted ones)

Pollinator

pollinatorspollinatingpollinated
Plants that moved from one area of the world to another may not always be accompanied by their pollinating partner, and the lack of pollinators has spurred human cultivation of parthenocarpic varieties.

Genetically modified organism

genetically modified organismsGMOgenetically modified
Some parthenocarpic varieties have been developed as genetically modified organisms.

Pineapple

pineapplespineapple juicesymbol of hospitality
Seedlessness is seen as a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds such as banana, pineapple, orange and grapefruit.