Parthian Empire

ParthianParthiansArsacidParthiaArsacid dynastyArsacid EmpireArsacidsArsacid dynasty of ParthiaPersiaParthian period
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.wikipedia
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Arsaces I of Parthia

Arsaces IArsacesArshak
Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire.
Arsaces I (from ; in Aršak, Ašk) was the first king of Parthia, as well as the founder and eponym of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, ruling from 247 BC to 217 BC.

Mithridates I of Parthia

Mithridates IMithradates IMithridates
Mithridates I of Parthia (r.
Mithridates I ( Mihrdāt), also known as Mithridates I the Great, was king of the Parthian Empire from 171 BC to 132 BC.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran.
An Iranian rebellion established the Parthian Empire in the third century BCE, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries.

Mesopotamia

MesopotamianMesopotamiansAncient Iraq
c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids.
Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire.

Parthia

Parthian EmpireParthian PersiaParthians
Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire.
The region later served as the political and cultural base of the Eastern-Iranian Parni people and Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD).

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
The Arsacid rulers were titled the "King of Kings", as a claim to be the heirs to the Achaemenid Empire; indeed, they accepted many local kings as vassals where the Achaemenids would have had centrally appointed, albeit largely autonomous, satraps. Native Parthian sources, written in Parthian, Greek and other languages, are scarce when compared to Sassanid and even earlier Achaemenid sources.
The Iranian elites of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire.

Ctesiphon

Seleucia-CtesiphonSelucia-CtesiphonAl-Madain
With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of central government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris (south of modern Baghdad, Iraq), although several other sites also served as capitals.
Ctesiphon served as a royal capital of the Persian Empire in the Parthian and Sasanian eras for over eight hundred years.

Battle of Carrhae

Carrhaedefeat at Carrhaefailed campaign
The Parthians soundly defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, and in 40–39 BC, Parthian forces captured the whole of the Levant except Tyre from the Romans.
The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae (present-day Harran, Turkey).

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of central government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris (south of modern Baghdad, Iraq), although several other sites also served as capitals.
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.

Ardashir I

ArdashirArdeshir IArdashir I of Persia
Frequent civil wars between Parthian contenders to the throne proved more dangerous to the Empire's stability than foreign invasion, and Parthian power evaporated when Ardashir I, ruler of Istakhr in Persis, revolted against the Arsacids and killed their last ruler, Artabanus IV, in 224 AD.
After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus IV on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty.

Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)

ArmeniaKingdom of ArmeniaGreater Armenia
However, as Parthia expanded westward, they came into conflict with the Kingdom of Armenia, and eventually the late Roman Republic.
The remaining Artaxiad kings ruled as clients of Rome until they were overthrown in 12 AD due to their possible allegiance to Rome's main rival in the region, Parthia.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran.
From the 1st century BC up to the 3rd century CE, large parts of modern-day Turkey were contested between the Romans and neighbouring Parthians through the frequent Roman-Parthian Wars.

Seleucid Empire

SeleucidSeleucidsSeleucid dynasty
Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire.
The Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia conquered much of the remaining eastern part of the Seleucid Empire in the mid-2nd century BC, while the independent Greco-Bactrian Kingdom continued to flourish in the northeast.

Seleucid–Parthian Wars

Seleucids
The earliest enemies of the Parthians were the Seleucids in the west and the Scythians in the north.
The Seleucid–Parthian wars were a series of conflicts between the Seleucid Empire and Parthia which resulted in the ultimate expulsion of the Seleucids from Persia and the establishment of the Parthian Empire.

Antony's Parthian War

his invasions40 and 38 BC invasionscampaign
However, Mark Antony led a counterattack against Parthia, although his successes were generally achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius.
Antony's Parthian War or the Roman–Parthian War of 40–33 BC was a major conflict between the Roman Republic, represented in the East by the triumvir Mark Antony, and the Parthian Empire.

Artabanus IV of Parthia

Artabanus IVArtabanus VArtabanus V of Parthia
Frequent civil wars between Parthian contenders to the throne proved more dangerous to the Empire's stability than foreign invasion, and Parthian power evaporated when Ardashir I, ruler of Istakhr in Persis, revolted against the Arsacids and killed their last ruler, Artabanus IV, in 224 AD.
Artabanus IV, also known as Ardavan IV (Parthian: 𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓), incorrectly known in older scholarship as Artabanus V, was the last ruler of Parthian Empire from c. 213 to 224.

Arsacid dynasty of Iberia

Arsacid dynastyIberiaArsacid
Ardashir established the Sassanid Empire, which ruled Iran and much of the Near East until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century AD, although the Arsacid dynasty lived on through the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia, the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, and the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania; all eponymous branches of the Parthian Arsacids.
The Arsacid dynasty or Arshakiani (არშაკიანი Arshak’iani), a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, ruled the ancient Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 189 until 284 AD.

Seleucia

Seleucia on the Tigris Seleucia (Seleucia-on-the-Tigris)Babylonian Seleucia
The Romans captured the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon on multiple occasions during these conflicts, but were never able to hold on to them.
Seleucia, also known as Seleucia-on-Tigris or Seleucia on the Tigris, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
The Parthians largely adopted the art, architecture, religious beliefs, and royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Persian, Hellenistic, and regional cultures.
After his death, the huge territories Alexander had conquered became subject to a strong Greek influence (Hellenization) for the next two or three centuries, until the rise of Rome in the west, and of Parthia in the east.

Parthian art

Parthianart of the Parthians
Parthian artwork is viewed by historians as a valid source for understanding aspects of society and culture that are otherwise absent in textual sources.
Parthian art was Iranian art made during the Parthian Empire from 247 BC to 224 AD, based in the Near East.

Publius Ventidius Bassus

VentidiusPublius VentidiusP. Ventidius Bassus
However, Mark Antony led a counterattack against Parthia, although his successes were generally achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius.
He won key victories against the Parthians which resulted in the deaths of key leaders – victories which redeemed the losses of Crassus and paved the way for Antony's incursions.

Parni

Aparni
Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire.
In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, the Parni invaded Parthia, "drove away the Greek satraps, who had then only just acquired independence, and founded a new dynasty", that of the Arsacids.

Parthian language

ParthianPahlaviIranic
Native Parthian sources, written in Parthian, Greek and other languages, are scarce when compared to Sassanid and even earlier Achaemenid sources.
Parthian was the language of state of the Arsacid Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD), as well as of its eponymous branches of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, and the Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania.

Marcus Licinius Crassus

CrassusMarcus CrassusLicinius Crassus
The Parthians soundly defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, and in 40–39 BC, Parthian forces captured the whole of the Levant except Tyre from the Romans.
Crassus used Syria as the launchpad for a military campaign against the Parthian Empire, Rome's long-time Eastern enemy.

List of Parthian kings

complete listKingArsacid
Due to these and other discrepancies, Bivar outlines two distinct royal chronologies accepted by historians.
Below is a list of rulers of the Iranian Parthian Empire (247 BC – 228 AD).