Participle

past participlepresent participleparticiplesadverbial participleparticipialpassive participleactive participleadjectival participlepast participlesparticipial phrase
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.wikipedia
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Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχή (metokhḗ) "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

Nonfinite verb

non-finite verbnon-finitenon-finite forms
It is one of the types of nonfinite verb forms.
Most nonfinite verbs found in English are infinitives, participles and gerunds.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχή (metokhḗ) "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.

English verbs

English-edEnglish verb
The two types of participle in English are traditionally called the present participle (forms such as writing, singing and raising) and the past participle (forms such as written, sung and raised). Details of participle formation can be found under English verbs and List of English irregular verbs.
Generally, the only inflected forms of an English verb are a third person singular present tense form ending in -s, a past tense (also called preterite), a past participle (which may be the same as the past tense), and a form ending in -ing that serves as a present participle and gerund.

Verb phrase

VPphrasesverb
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Verb phrases generally are divided among two types: finite, of which the head of the phrase is a finite verb; and nonfinite, where the head is a nonfinite verb, such as an infinitive, participle or gerund.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
Participles are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses.
For example, the K'iche' language spoken in Guatemala has the inflectional prefixes k- and x- to mark incompletive and completive aspect; Mandarin Chinese has the aspect markers -le 了, -zhe 着, zài- 在, and -guò 过 to mark the perfective, durative stative, durative progressive, and experiential aspects, and also marks aspect with adverbs; and English marks the continuous aspect with the verb to be coupled with present participle and the perfect with the verb to have coupled with past participle.

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrase
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
They also function as arguments in such constructs as participial phrases and prepositional phrases.

Gerund

English gerundgerundsfused participle
Sometimes different names are used; adverbial participles in certain languages may be called converbs, gerunds, or gerundives (though this is not consistent with the meanings of the terms gerund or gerundive as normally applied to English or Latin), or transgressives.
Traditional grammar makes a distinction within -ing forms between present participles and gerunds, a distinction that is not observed in such modern, linguistically informed grammars as A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.

Voice (grammar)

voicegrammatical voicevoices
Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχή (metokhḗ) "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).
Specifically, it is made up of a form of the auxiliary verb to be and a past participle of the main verb.

Verb

verbssubject-verb agreementv.
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
In the Indo-European languages, verbal adjectives are generally called participles.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχή (metokhḗ) "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).
Examples which combine both types of tense marking include the French passé composé, which has an auxiliary verb together with the inflected past participle form of the main verb; and the Irish past tense, where the proclitic do (in various surface forms) appears in conjunction with the affixed or ablaut-modified past tense form of the main verb.

List of English irregular verbs

irregular verbslistList of irregular verbs
Details of participle formation can be found under English verbs and List of English irregular verbs.
This is followed by the simple past tense (preterite), and then the past participle.

Passive voice

passivepassivizationpassives
Like other parts of the verb, participles can be either active (e.g. breaking) or passive (e.g. broken).

Germanic strong verb

strong verbsstrong verbstrong
In Old English, past participles of Germanic strong verbs were marked with a ge- prefix, as are most strong and weak past participles in Dutch and German today, and often by a vowel change in the stem.
In modern English, strong verbs include sing (present I sing, past I sang, past participle I have sung) and drive (present I drive, past I drove, past participle I have driven), as opposed to weak verbs such as open (present I open, past I opened, past participle I have opened).

-ing

-ing'' (etymology)present participle/gerundWiktionary entry for ''-ing
See -ing (etymology).
This verb form is used as a present participle, as a gerund, and sometimes as an independent noun or adjective.

Transgressive (linguistics)

transgressivepresent transgressiveTransgressive (morphology)
Sometimes different names are used; adverbial participles in certain languages may be called converbs, gerunds, or gerundives (though this is not consistent with the meanings of the terms gerund or gerundive as normally applied to English or Latin), or transgressives.
It is considered to be a kind of infinitive, or participle.

Perfect (grammar)

perfectperfect aspectperfect tense
The word perfect in this sense means "completed" (from Latin perfectum, which is the perfect passive participle of the verb perficere "to complete").

Russian grammar

RussiangrammarRussian basic (unprefixed) verbs of motion
Some languages have different forms for the two types of participle; such languages include Russian and other Slavic languages, Hungarian, and many Eskimo languages, such as Sireniki, which has a sophisticated participle system.
Grammatical conjugation is subject to three persons in two numbers and two simple tenses (present/future and past), with periphrastic forms for the future and subjunctive, as well as imperative forms and present/past participles, distinguished by adjectival and adverbial usage (see adjectival participle and adverbial participle).

English irregular verbs

irregular verbsirregularEnglish (irregular)
In most cases, the irregularity concerns the past tense (also called preterite) or the past participle.

Continuous and progressive aspects

progressiveprogressive aspectcontinuous aspect
The continuous aspect is constructed by using a form of the copula, "to be", together with the present participle (marked with the suffix -ing).

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχή (metokhḗ) "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).
There are six general "tenses" in Latin (present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect and future perfect), three moods (indicative, imperative and subjunctive, in addition to the infinitive, participle, gerund, gerundive and supine), three persons (first, second and third), two numbers (singular and plural), two voices (active and passive) and two aspects (perfective and imperfective).

English passive voice

passive voicepassiveactive-passive alternation in English
Verbs in the passive voice in English are formed using several parts (periphrastically): the usual construction uses the auxiliary verbs to be or to get together with the past participle of the main verb.

Relative clause

relativerelative clausesfree relative clause
Relative clauses are relatively frequent in modern Serbo-Croatian since they have expanded as attributes at the expense of the participles performing that function.

Reduced relative clause

null pronoun in Englishreduced object relative passive clausereduced relative
Another form of reduced relative clause is the "reduced object passive relative clause", a type of nonfinite clause headed by a past participle, such as the clause found here in: "The animals found here can be dangerous."

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
In Old English, past participles of Germanic strong verbs were marked with a ge- prefix, as are most strong and weak past participles in Dutch and German today, and often by a vowel change in the stem.
Pronouns and sometimes participles agree in case, gender, and number.