A report on Partition of India

Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)
British Indian Empire in The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (seated in the carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receives a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League
Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Maulana Azad at the 1940 Ramgarh session of the Congress in which Azad was elected president for the second time
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan centre
The Partition of India: green regions were all part of Pakistan by 1948, and orange ones part of India. The darker-shaded regions represent the Punjab and Bengal provinces partitioned by the Radcliffe Line. The grey areas represent some of the key princely states that were eventually integrated into India or Pakistan.
Mountbatten with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947.
A refugee special train at Ambala Station during the partition of India
A crowd of Muslims at the Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi, which had been converted into a vast camp for Muslim refugees waiting to be transported to Pakistan. Manchester Guardian, 27 September 1947.
Four nations (India, Pakistan, Dominion of Ceylon, and Union of Burma) that gained independence in 1947 and 1948
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
1909 Percentage of Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains.

The partition of India in 1947 divided British India into two independent dominions: India and Pakistan.

- Partition of India
Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)

192 related topics with Alpha

Overall

1909 Map of India, showing British India in two shades of pink and Princely states in yellow

British Raj

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Founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.

Founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.

1909 Map of India, showing British India in two shades of pink and Princely states in yellow
1909 Map of India, showing British India in two shades of pink and Princely states in yellow
Viceroy Curzon (1899–1905). He promoted many reforms but his partitioning of Bengal into Muslim and Hindu provinces caused outrage.
Cover of a 1909 issue of the Tamil magazine Vijaya showing "Mother India" with her diverse progeny and the rallying cry "Vande Mataram"
Sepoy Khudadad Khan, the first Indian to be awarded the Victoria Cross, the British Empire's highest war-time medal for gallantry. Khan, from Chakwal District, Punjab (present-day Pakistan) was fighting on the Western Front in 1914.
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League.
Mahatma Gandhi (seated in carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receiving a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Gandhi at the time of the Kheda Satyagraha, 1918
Sidney Rowlatt, the British judge under whose chairmanship the Rowlatt Committee recommended stricter anti-sedition laws
Headlines about the Rowlatt Bills (1919) from a nationalist newspaper in India. Although all non-official Indians on the Legislative Council voted against the Rowlatt Bills, the government was able to force their passage by using its majority.
The Jallianwala Bagh in 1919, a few months after the massacre which had occurred on 13 April
A. K. Fazlul Huq, known as the Sher-e-Bangla or Tiger of Bengal, was the first elected Premier of Bengal, leader of the K. P. P. and an important ally of the All India Muslim League.
Subhas Chandra Bose (second from left) with Heinrich Himmler (right), 1942
The series of stamps, "Victory", issued by the Government of India to commemorate the allied victory in World War II
Members of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India meeting Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Far left is Lord Pethick Lawrence; far right is Sir Stafford Cripps
Percentage of Hindus by district, 1909
Percentage of Muslims by district, 1909
Sir Charles Wood (1800–1885) was President of the Board of Control of the East India Company from 1852 to 1855; he shaped British education policy in India, and was Secretary of State for India from 1859 to 1866.
Lord Canning, the last governor-general of India under Company rule and the first viceroy of India under Crown rule
Lord Salisbury was Secretary of State for India from 1874 to 1878.
Elephant Carriage of the Maharaja of Rewa, Delhi Durbar of 1903
One Mohur depicting Queen Victoria (1862)
The railway network of India in 1871, all major cities, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, as well as Delhi are connected
The railway network of India in 1909, when it was the fourth largest railway network in the world
"The most magnificent railway station in the world." says the caption of the stereographic tourist picture of Victoria Terminus, Bombay, which was completed in 1888
The Queen's Own Madras Sappers and Miners, 1896
The global contribution to world's GDP by major economies from 1 CE to 2003 CE according to Angus Maddison's estimates. Up until the early 18th century, China and India were the two largest economies by GDP output.
The 1921 Census of British India shows 69 million Muslims, 217 million Hindus out of a total population of 316 million.
Child who starved to death during the Bengal famine of 1943
The University of Lucknow, founded by the British in 1867
The University of Calcutta, established in 1857, is one of the three oldest modern state universities in India.
St. Paul's Cathedral was built in 1847 and served as the chair of the Bishop of Calcutta, who served as the metropolitan of the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon.
The British Indian Empire and surrounding countries in 1909
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of Lord Dalhousie's Doctrine of Lapse
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, founder of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, later the Aligarh Muslim University, wrote one of the early critiques, The Causes of the Indian Mutiny.
An 1887 souvenir portrait of Queen Victoria as Empress of India, 30 years after the war
Viceroy, Lord Canning, meets the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, Ranbir Singh, 9 March 1860. Kashmir, like Hyderabad, Mysore, and the states of the Rajputana, supported the British during the Rebellion of 1857.
1909 Prevailing Religions, map of British India, 1909, showing the majority religions based on the Census of 1901
Hakim Ajmal Khan, a founder of the Muslim League, became the president of the Indian National Congress in 1921.
Lord Minto, the Conservative viceroy met with the Muslim delegation in June 1906. The Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 called for separate Muslim electorates.
Mahatma Gandhi with Annie Besant en route to a meeting in Madras in September 1921. Earlier, in Madurai, on 21 September 1921, Gandhi had adopted the loin-cloth for the first time as a symbol of his identification with India's poor.
An early 1920s poster advertising a Congress non-co-operation "Public Meeting" and a "Bonfire of Foreign Clothes" in Bombay, and expressing support for the "Karachi Khilafat Conference"
Hindus and Muslims, displaying the flags of both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League, collecting clothes to be later burnt as a part of the non-cooperation movement initiated by Gandhi
Photograph of the staff and students of the National College, Lahore, founded in 1921 by Lala Lajpat Rai for students preparing for the non-co-operation movement. Standing, fourth from the right, is future revolutionary Bhagat Singh.
British prime minister, Ramsay MacDonald, three places to the right of Gandhi (to the viewer's left) at the 2nd Round Table Conference. Samuel Hoare is two places to Gandhi's right. Foreground, fourth from left, is B. R. Ambedkar representing the "Depressed Classes"
A second-day cancellation of the series "Inauguration of New Delhi", 27 February 1931, commemorating the new city designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker
A first-day cover issued on 1 April 1937 commemorating the separation of Burma from the British Indian Empire
Mahatma Gandhi (centre-right) and Rajendra Prasad (centre-left) on their way to meet the viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, on 13 October 1939, after the outbreak of World War II
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan (centre)
Newly arrived Indian troops on the quayside in Singapore, November 1941
Indian Army troops in action during Operation Crusader in the Western Desert Campaign in North Africa in November/December 1941
Two silver one rupee coins used in India during the British Raj, showing Victoria, Queen, 1862 (left) and Victoria, Empress, 1886 (right)
Silver one rupee coins showing Edward VII, King-Emperor, 1903 (left) and 1908 (right)
Silver one rupee coins used in India during the British Raj, showing George V, King-Emperor, 1913 (left) and 1919 (right)
One rupee coins showing George VI, King-Emperor, 1940 (left) and just before India's independence in 1947 (right){{efn|The only other emperor during this period, Edward VIII (reigned January to December 1936), did not issue any Indian currency under his name.}}
The proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India," issued by Queen Victoria on November 1, 1858.
The Agra canal ({{circa|1873}}), a year from completion, was closed to navigation in 1904 to increase irrigation during a famine.
Lord Ripon, the Liberal Viceroy of India, who instituted the Famine Code. 1880
Allan Octavian Hume (1829-1912), who proposed the idea of the Indian National Congress in a letter to graduates of Calcutta University.
Congress, Bombay, December 28, 1885. Third row (middle) (l. to r.) Dadabhai Naoroji, Hume, W. C. Bonerjee, and Pherozeshah Mehta.
Poverty and the Un-British Rule in India, 1901, by Naoroji, Member, British Parliament (1892–1895), and Congress president (1886, 1893, 1906).
Mehta, lawyer, businessman, and president of the sixth session of the Indian National Congress in 1890.
Congress moderate Sir Surendranath Banerjee led the opposition with the Swadeshi movement.
Annie Besant shown with the Theosophists in Adyar, Madras in 1912 four years before she founded an Indian Home Rule League.{{efn|Seated l. to r. are: Jiddhu Krisnamurthi, Besant, and Charles Webster Leadbeater.}}

It lasted until 1947, when the British Raj was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh).

Pakistan

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Country in South Asia.

Country in South Asia.

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

Spurred by the Pakistan Movement, which sought a homeland for the Muslims of British India, and election victories in 1946 by the All-India Muslim League, Pakistan gained independence in 1947 after the Partition of the British Indian Empire, which awarded separate statehood to its Muslim-majority regions and was accompanied by an unparalleled mass migration and loss of life.

Bangladesh

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Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
7th century buddhist monastery. Known as Somapura Mahavihara
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected Mosque City of Bagerhat.
Choto Sona Mosque, built during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah
Kusumba Mosque
Shipbuilding was a major industry in the Bengal Sultanate and later in Mughal Bengal
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Founding conference of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka, 1906
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East Bengal its eastern part
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (left) and Munier Chowdhury (centre) visiting Matiul Islam (right), an East Bengali student at Harvard during the late 1950s
Museum of Independence, Dhaka
Sheikh Mujib casting his ballot during a general election. He was given the popular title of Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) and is regarded as Bangladesh's founding leader.
Ziaur Rahman with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978
Muhammad Yunus (center) celebrating the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 with his family in Oslo, Norway
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar
Physical map of Bangladesh
A Bengal tiger, the national animal, in the Sundarbans
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka
The National Parliament of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force deployments
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)
U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses
Historical development of GDP per capita
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).
A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines
Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011
In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia Space
The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year
Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts
Faculty of Sciences at the University of Dhaka; The Curzon Hall
A Bangladeshi nurse in Kutupalong Refugee Camp
Historical development of life expectancy in Bangladesh
A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct
Syed Mujtaba Ali
Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898
The 18th century terracotta Hindu Kantanagar Temple in Dinajpur
A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia
Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition
Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha
A Nouka Baich boat race
Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah
Beds of zamindars kept at the Bangladesh National Museum

Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic region of Bengal, which was divided during the Partition of India in 1947.

India

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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.

Jinnah in 1945

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

22 links

Barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan.

Barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan.

Jinnah in 1945
Portrait of Jinnah's father, Jinnahbhai Poonja
Lincoln's Inn, seen in 2006
Jinnah as a barrister
Jinnah in 1910
Marriage certificate of Jinnah and Rattanbai Petit
Jinnah's passport
Jinnah (front, left) with the Working Committee of the Muslim League after a meeting in Lucknow, October 1937
Jinnah addresses the Muslim League session at Patna, 1938
Jinnah seated with Iqbal at the round table conference
The leaders of the Muslim League, 1940. Jinnah is seated at centre.
Jinnah and Gandhi arguing in 1939
Jinnah makes a speech in New Delhi, 1943
Jinnah with Mahatma Gandhi in Bombay, 1944
Nehru (left) and Jinnah walk together at Simla, 1946
Lord Louis Mountbatten and his wife Edwina Mountbatten with Jinnah in 1947
Jinnah announcing the creation of Pakistan over All India Radio on 3 June 1947
Jinnah speaking at the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 14 August 1947
Jinnah's arrival at Lahore to discuss the Kashmir crisis in 1948
Jinnah spent many of the last days of his life at Quaid-e-Azam Residency, Ziarat, Pakistan.
Jinnah and his sister Fatima Jinnah's wax statues at the museum in the Pakistan Monument, Islamabad
Special services and prayers were held in the Kwitang mosque of Jakarta (Indonesia) after the death of Jinnah.
Tomb of Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Karachi
Statue of Jinnah at York University in Toronto
Blue Plaque in London dedicated to Jinnah

As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah worked to establish the new nation's government and policies, and to aid the millions of Muslim migrants who had emigrated from neighbouring India to Pakistan after the two states' independence, personally supervising the establishment of refugee camps.

Bengal

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Geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.

Geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.

The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta
On a clear day, the snowy peaks of the Himalayas in Nepal and Sikkim can be seen from northern Bangladesh and Darjeeling district of West Bengal
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A 2015 census of Sundarbans Bengal tigers found 106 in Bangladesh and 76 in West Bengal.
Hindu sculpture, 11th century
Inscriptions on the Adina Mosque proclaim the builder Sikandar Shah as "the wisest, the most just, the most perfect and most liberal of the Sultans of Arabia, Persia and India."
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century.
The Battle of Plassey in 1757 ushered British rule
The former royal palace of Hill Tippera in Agartala
Shaheed Minar in Dhaka commemorates the 1952 Language Movement
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led Bengali's decade long independence struggle including the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971
Bangabhaban (the House of Bengal) is the official residence of the president of Bangladesh
Writers' Building, the official seat of the Government of West Bengal
Biman Bangladesh Airlines is the largest airline based in the Bengal region
The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, India
New Mooring Terminal, Port of Chittagong
Aerial view of Haldia port, Haldia Port
The strategically important city of Chittagong is home to the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal
Bengali Letters
A silver coin with Proto-Bengali script, 9th century
Rabindranath Tagore, known as the Bengali Shakespeare, being hosted at the Parliament of Iran in the 1930s
Bangladeshi paintings on sale at an art gallery in Dhaka
Bungalows originated from Bengali architecture
A sculpture on Fazlur Rahman Khan at the Sears Tower in the United States
A Baul musician. The Baul ballads of Bengal are classified by UNESCO as humanity's intangible cultural heritage
18th century painting of a budgerow
A river in Bangladesh
A mustard and date palm farm in West Bengal
A tea garden in Bangladesh
Kanchenjunga from Singalila National Park, West Bengal
Gangaridai in Ptolemy's map, 1st century
The Pala Empire, 9th century
At its greatest extent, the Bengal Sultanate's realm and protectorates stretched from Jaunpur in North India in the west to Tripura and Arakan in the east
The Bengal Sultanate, 16th century
Bengal & Bihar in 1776 by James Rennell
Colonial Bengal, 19th century
Colonial Eastern Bengal and Assam, early 20th century
Province of Bengal (1931)
Map of West Bengal
Map of Bangladesh
Map of Tripura
Flag of Bengal Sultanate
Flag of the Bengal Subah (15-18th Century)
Flag of Bengal Presidency, under British rule
Flag of Bangladesh during Bangladesh Liberation War and after
Flag of Bangladesh from 1972 onwards

As part of the Partition of India, Bengal was divided between predominantly Muslim and Hindu populations; an independent, united Bengal was considered, but the idea was rejected, predominantly due to religious divisions.

Dominion of India

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Independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations existing between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950.

Independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations existing between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950.

Administrative divisions of India, 1949
Clement Attlee left with King George VI on the grounds of Buckingham Palace after Labour Party's victory in the general elections, 26 July 1945.
Administrative divisions of India, 1949
Lord Mountbatten swearing in Jawaharlal Nehru as the first prime minister of independent India on 15 August 1947
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, left, prime minister of Bengal (1946–1947) and later prime minister of Pakistan, and Mahatma Gandhi during their 73-hour fast in Calcutta to stop religious violence in the days after India's independence day
Lady Edwina Mountbatten visiting a refugee camp just outside Delhi in June 1947.
Kashmir showing the regions controlled by India and Pakistan. The Line of Control, the successor of cease-fire line of 1949, separates the two regions.
Nehru visiting an Indian soldier at the Brigade Headquarters Military Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir, in May 1948
Mahatma Gandhi's ashes on a carriage being drawn by soldiers of the Indian army for immersion in the Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, February 1948
Sardar Patel (centre) leaving the Durbar Hall in Jaipur after the inauguration of the Rajasthan Union in 1949. On the right is Man Singh II, the Maharaja of Jaipur and the first Rajpramukh of the Union; on the left is the Maharaja of Kotah
The preamble of the Constitution of India.
A destitute mother and child on the pavement in Calcutta during the Bengal famine of 1943.
Literacy day in India, 1947
Untouchable's leader, B. R. Ambedkar, Chairman, Drafting Committee, Constitution of India, at the premiere of the film Paro (Story of an Untouchable girl), West End Theatre, Bombay, 1949
India: the prevailing religions, 1909, Imperial Gazetteer of India.
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
1909 Percentage of Sikhs and others.
left|thumb|Emergency trains crowded with desperate refugees
thumb|left|B. R. Ambedkar, presenting the final draft of the Constitution of India to Rajendra Prasad, president of the Constituent Assembly of India, 25 November 1949
The Indian contingent marching at the 1948 London Olympics. India won the gold medal in Field Hockey
Jawaharlal Nehru delivering his 'Tryst with Destiny' speech at Parliament House in New Delhi during the midnight session of the Constituent Assembly on 14–15 August 1947
The 3 1⁄2 annas stamp showing the tricolour Flag of India (for foreign surface mail) issued 15 August 1947
left|thumb|Prime ministers of the Commonwealth with King George VI (5th fr left), London 13 October 1948; Don Stephen Senanayake, Ceylon (2nd fr left); Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan (3rd fr left); C. R. Attlee (UK, 5th fr right) and Jawaharlal Nehru of India (far right).<ref name=commonwealth-PMs>{{citation|last=Capie|first=David|chapter=Asia and New Zealand - War, empire and the new Commonwealth|title=Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand|chapter-url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/36232/meeting-of-commonwealth-prime-ministers-london-1948|year=2012|access-date=19 September 2021}}</ref>
Nehru being received at the Washington National Airport by the President Harry S. Truman, 11 October 1949
Governor-General Rajagopalachari declares India a Republic at Darbar Hall on 26 January 1950

The Dominion of India came into existence as British India was both partitioned and beset with religious violence.

Fort William, headquarters of the British East India Company

Kolkata

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Capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

Capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

Fort William, headquarters of the British East India Company
Arms of the city of Calcutta, c. 1914.
Chowringhee avenue and Tipu Sultan Mosque in central Calcutta, 1945.
Bengali billboards on Harrison Street. Calcutta was the largest commercial centre in British India.
Map of Calcutta, ca 1914
Aerial view of the Kolkata skyline, including The 42 and Vidyasagar Setu
Reserve Bank of India building, Kolkata
The 42 at Chowringhee at 260 m is the tallest building in Kolkata
Residential high-rise buildings in South City
Calcutta High Court
A telecommunications tower belonging to services provider Tata Communications
The Kolkata Tram is the oldest operating electric tram system in Asia
The Kolkata Metro is the oldest rapid transit system in India
The Kolkata Suburban Railway is the busiest commuter rail system in India
The yellow taxi remains a favourite despite the foray of rideshare companies in the transport market
A road in Kolkata showing bus, and cars. There are other modes of transport available such as taxi or cab, tram, metro, auto rikshaw, rikshaw and ferry or water taxi.
The terminal of the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport
Khidirpore Dock of Kolkata Port Trust
Calcutta Medical College, the second institution in Asia to teach modern medicine (after 'Ecole de Médicine de Pondichéry')
IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, largest hospital in West Bengal and one of the oldest in Kolkata.
Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade
West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences
Presidency University, Kolkata
Aerial view of the Amity University, Kolkata
Victoria Memorial at night
Indian Museum is the oldest and one of the largest museums in India
National Library of India
Making of Durga idol in Kumartuli, Kolkata
A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festival
Sandesh, a typical Bengali sweet made from chhena
Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet, a music genre started by Rabindranath Tagore
Akashvani Bhawan, the head office of state-owned All India Radio, Kolkata
Salt Lake Stadium on a matchday of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
First day and night test match in India between India and Bangladesh at the Eden gardens

The partition of India led to further clashes and a demographic shift—many Muslims left for East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh), while hundreds of thousands of Hindus fled into the city.

Punjab Province (British India)

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Province of British India.

Province of British India.

The Punjab in 1880
Districts of Punjab with Muslim (green) and non-Muslim (pink) majorities, as per 1941 census
Arms of British Punjab

In 1947, the Partition of India led to the province's division into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly independent dominions of India and Pakistan respectively.

Bengal Presidency

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Subdivision of the British Empire in India.

Subdivision of the British Empire in India.

Map showing the Bengal Presidency's jurisdiction in the 1860s
Jahangir first permitted the East India Company (HEIC) to trade in Bengal
Map showing the Bengal Presidency's jurisdiction in the 1860s
Robert Clive at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, which marked the defeat of the last independent Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Daulah
The Impeachment of Warren Hastings
Johnston's Pier, Singapore in 1856
A statue in Calcutta Victoria Memorial of Lord Curzon, who announced the creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam on 16 October 1905
In 1911, King George V announced the annulment of the first partition of Bengal and the transfer of British Raj India's capital from Calcutta to New Delhi
Fort William, 1828
Calcutta High Court, 1860s
The Legislative Council met in Calcutta Town Hall
The first elected cabinet of Bengal led by A. K. Fazlul Huq in 1937
The 13th Dalai Lama in Calcutta in 1910
Tomb of Jonathan Henry Lovett (1779–1805), who acted as Bengali ambassador to Qajar Persia.
Statue of Lord William Bentinck in Calcutta Victoria Memorial. As Governor-General, Bentinck made English the medium of instruction in schools and phased out Persian.
Raja Ram Mohun Roy, a native reformer and educationist
Calcutta Port, 1885
Labourers at a jute mill in the Port of Narayanganj, 1906
Lord Dalhousie is credited for developing railways, telegraph and postal services
The certificate of a shareholder in the Bengal Provincial Railway Company Limited
The Viceroy of India arrives in the Port of Dhaka in 1908
Royal Air Force planes in Chittagong Airfield
Bengal Horse Artillery, 1860
Bengal Sappers in Kabul, 1879
The Bengal famine of 1943
Rabindranath Tagore (while in London in 1879) and Kazi Nazrul Islam (while in the British Indian Army in 1917–1920)
The frontpage of Hicky's Bengal Gazette on 29 January 1780
The Company style of Mughal miniatures
Painting by Johann Zoffany of Governor-General Warren Hastings and his wife Marian at their garden in Alipore
Viceroy's Cup Day at the Calcutta Race Course
Bengal Presidency, 1776
Bengal Presidency, 1786
Map showing northern regions of the Presidency in 1858, including princely states of Kashmir, Rajputana Agency, and the Punjab
Map showing growth of British rule in Bengal and Burma
Map denoting Lower Bengal in 1870, including Bengal proper, Orissa, Bihar and Assam; and princely states
Map showing the result of the partition of Bengal in 1905. The western part (Bengal) gained parts of Orissa, while the eastern part (Eastern Bengal and Assam) regained Assam that had been made a separate province in 1874.
Bengal Province in 1931 and adjoining princely states of Hill Tippera and Cooch Behar State
Howrah Bridge in 1945
Victoria Memorial, Kolkata
Writer's Building
Ruplal House
Hardinge Bridge, 1915
Dacca College, 1904
Dacca Madrasa, 1904
Nawab's Shahbagh Garden, 1904
Jahangir first permitted the East India Company (HEIC) to trade in Bengal

The Partition of British India in 1947 resulted in Bengal's division on religious grounds.