Partitions of Poland

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures
Włodzimierz Tetmajer, Allegory of Dead Poland, St. Nicholas Cathedral, Kalisz
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition, as a protectorate of the Russian Empire (1773–89)
Rejtan at Sejm 1773, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Second Partition (1793)
1793 Russian campaign medal
"A map of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania including Samogitia and Curland divided according to their dismemberments with the Kingdom of Prussia" from 1799
The partition of Poland according to the German–Soviet Pact; division of Polish territories in the years 1939–1941

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Russian Partition

The Massacre of Praga (now a district of Warsaw), April 1794
1865 Death march of Polish captives to Siberia by Grottger

The Russian Partition (sometimes called Russian Poland) constituted the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that were annexed by the Russian Empire in the course of late-18th-century Partitions of Poland.

Austrian Partition

Edward Dembowski during the Kraków Uprising against the Austrian rule, 1846

The Austrian Partition (zabór austriacki) comprise the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired by the Habsburg monarchy during the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Country and federation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch in real union, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (green) with vassal states (light green) at their peak in 1619
The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1526.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (green) with vassal states (light green) at their peak in 1619
The Union of Lublin joined the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619.
Sigismund III Vasa was a religious zealot and an enlightened despot who presided over an era of prosperity and achievement. His reign also marked the Commonwealth's largest territorial expansion.
Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (parliment) in the early 17th century
John III Sobieski, victor over the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, wearing the Order of the White Eagle which he established in 1705.
Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Royal Castle in Warsaw was the formal residence of Polish kings after the capital was moved from Kraków in 1596
Crown Tribunal in Lublin was the highest court of appeals in the Kingdom of Poland
Palace of the Lithuanian Tribunal in Vilnius, which exclusively was the highest appeal court for the Lithuanian nobility in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Republic at the Zenith of Its Power, the Royal Election of 1573
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
Cereals exports in the years 1619–1799. Agriculture, once extremely profitable to the nobility, became much less so after the mid-17th century.
A historical re-enactor dressed in the Polish Winged Hussars armour
Multi-stage rocket from Artis Magnæ Artilleriæ pars prima by Kazimierz Siemienowicz
Krasiczyn Castle was built between 1580-1631 in the mannerist style.
Wilanów Palace, completed in 1696, exemplifies the opulence of royal and noble residences in the Commonwealth.
Nieborów Palace designed by Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren and built in 1697
Social strata in the Commonwealth's society in 1655. From left: Jew, barber surgeon, painter, butcher, musician, tailor, barmaid, pharmacist, shoemaker, goldsmith, merchant and Armenian
Population density of the Commonwealth per each voivodeship in 1650
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kraków was built between 1597-1619 by the Jesuit order
Original act of the Warsaw Confederation in 1573, the first act of religious freedom in Europe
First anniversary anthem of the Constitution of 3 May 1791 (1792) in Hebrew, Polish, German and French
Topographical map of the Commonwealth in 1764
Statuta Regni Poloniae in ordinem alphabeti digesta (Statutes of the Polish Kingdom, Arranged in Alphabetical Order), 1563
Grand Marshal of the Crown Łukasz Opaliński portraited with the insignium of his power in the parliament - the Marshal's cane, 1640
Rococo iconostasis in the Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit in Vilnius, designed by Johann Christoph Glaubitz, 1753–1756
18th century amber casket. Gdańsk patronized by the Polish court flourished as the center for amber working in the 17th century.<ref name="gordon_campbell">{{cite book |author=Gordon Campbell |title=The Grove encyclopedia of decorative arts |year=2006 |page=13 |publisher=Oxford University Press US |isbn=01-95189-48-5}}</ref>
Stanisław Poniatowski, Commander of the Royal Guards and Grand Treasurer. Painted by Angelika Kauffmann in 1786.
Equestrian portrait of King Sigismund III of Poland, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1624
Tapestry with the arms of Michał Kazimierz Pac, Jan Leyniers, Brussels, 1667–1669
Silver tankard by Józef Ceypler, Kraków, 1739–1745
Example of the merchant architecture: Konopnica's tenement house in Lublin, 1575
Hussars' armours, first half of the 17th century
De republica emendanda (1554) by Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, proposed a deep programme of reforms of the state, society and church.
Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny, the first Polish newspaper published on the orders of Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga in 1661
Title page of Treny (1580) by Jan Kochanowski, a series of elegies upon the death of his beloved daughter, is an acknowledged masterpiece.
A plate from Michał Boym's Flora Sinensis (1656), the first description of an ecosystem of the Far East published in Europe<ref>{{cite book |author1=Gwei-Djen Lu |author2=Joseph Needham |author3=Vivienne Lo |title=Celestial lancets: a history and rationale of acupuncture and moxa |year=2002 |page=284 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=07-00714-58-8}}</ref>
Taurus Poniatovii, constellation originated by Marcin Poczobutt in 1777 to honor the king Stanisław II Augustus<ref>{{cite web |author=Ian Ridpath |url=http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/poniatowski.htm |title=Taurus Poniatovii - Poniatowski's bull |work=www.ianridpath.com |access-date=2009-05-18}}</ref>
Branicki Palace in Białystok, designed by Tylman van Gameren, is sometimes referred to as the "Polish Versailles."
Pažaislis Monastery in Kaunas, Pietro Puttini, built 1674–1712
Zamość City Hall, designed by Bernardo Morando, is a unique example of Renaissance architecture in Europe, consistently built in accordance with the Italian theories of an "ideal town."<ref name="unesco.org">{{cite web |url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/564 |title=Old City of Zamość |publisher=UNESCO World Heritage Centre |date=2009-09-23 |access-date=2011-09-15}}</ref>
Plafond Allegory of Spring, Jerzy Siemiginowski, 1680s, Wilanów Palace
Łańcut Synagogue was established by Stanisław Lubomirski, 1733.<ref>After a fire had destroyed a wooden synagogue in 1733 Stanislaw Lubomirski decided to found a new bricked synagogue building. {{cite web |author=Polin Travel |url=http://www.jewish-guide.pl/sites/lancut |title=Lancut |work=www.jewish-guide.pl|access-date=2010-09-02}}</ref>
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kraków was built between 1597-1619 by the Jesuit order

Its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors (Austria, Prussia, and Russia) during the late 18th century.

Prussian Partition

Jan Henryk Dabrowski entering Poznań in 1806
The battle of Miloslaw during the fourth Greater Poland Uprising (1846)
Growth of Prussia. Yellow are the territories gained by Prussia during the partitions of Poland
Poles in the German Empire electoral districts according to the census of 1910

The Prussian Partition (Zabór pruski), or Prussian Poland, is the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired during the Partitions of Poland, in the late 18th century by the Kingdom of Prussia.

Lithuania

Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Lithuania's name in writing, 1009
Baltic amber was once a valuable trade resource. It was transported from the region of modern-day Lithuania to the Roman Empire and Egypt through the Amber Road.
Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania's strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.
Trakai Island Castle, the former residence of the Grand Dukes and capital city of the medieval state
Battle of Grunwald and Vytautas the Great in the centre
The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces over the Muscovites at the Battle of Orsha in 1514
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius, marked 6, in 1600
Emilia Plater, often nicknamed as a Lithuanian Joan of Arc, leading peasant scythemen during the 1831 uprising
Bishop Motiejus Valančius resisted Russification. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor
The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of Independence of Lithuania, 16 February 1918.
Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3, used in Lithuanian Wars of Independence and Lithuanian soldiers
Antanas Smetona was the first and last president of interbellum Lithuania (1919–1920, 1926–1940)
Lituanica above New York in 1933. The transatlantic flight was one of the most precise in aviation history. It equaled, and in some aspects surpassed, Charles Lindbergh's classic flight.
Soldiers of the Red Army enter the territory of Lithuania during the first Soviet occupation in 1940.
Lithuanian resistance fighters. The armed resistance was 50,000 strong at its peak.
Site of the Paneriai massacre, where the German Nazis and their collaborators executed up to 100,000 people of various nationalities. About 70,000 of them were Jews.
Monument in Naujoji Vilnia in memory of the Soviet deportations from Lithuania
The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration where approx. 25% of the population of the Baltic states participated
An Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
On 13 January 1991, Soviet forces fired live rounds at unarmed independence supporters and crushed two of them with tanks, killing 13 in total. To this day, Russia refuses to extradite the perpetrators, who were convicted of war crimes.
Physical map and geomorphological subdivision of Lithuania.
White stork is the national bird of Lithuania which has the highest-density stork population in Europe.
Seimas — Parliament of Lithuania
Commemoration of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania in the historical Seimas hall where it was originally signed in 1990. The ceremony is attended by the Lithuanian President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Seimas and other high-ranking officials.
Statutes of Lithuania were the central piece of Lithuanian law in 1529–1795
Lithuanian police cruiser in Gediminas Avenue, Vilnius
Stamp dedicated to Lithuania's presidency of the European Union. Post of Lithuania, 2013.
Lithuania was recently a member of the United Nations Security Council. Its representatives are on the right side.
Lithuanian Army soldiers with their NATO allies during Iron Sword 2014
Lithuanian Army soldiers marching with their dress uniforms in Vilnius. An officer stands out with a sword.
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Lithuania's GDP per capita compared to rest of the world (2020)
Lithuania, GNI per capita, PPP (current international $), 2016
A proportional representation of Lithuania exports, 2019
Nasdaq Vilnius Stock Exchange, located in K29 business centre in Konstitucijos Avenue, Vilnius
LituanicaSAT-2 in the thermal-vacuum chamber.
Druskininkai is a popular spa town
Telia (skyscraper with the old Teo LT logo) and Huawei headquarters in Vilnius
Major highways in Lithuania
Marijampolė railway station, completed in 1924
Mineral water spring in Birštonas
FSRU Independence in port of Klaipėda
Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant
Population of Lithuania 1915–2014
Population density
Kaunas Clinics is the largest and the most advanced medical institution in Lithuania.
Hill of Crosses near Šiauliai
Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in the region. It was established by Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1579.
Vilnius University Life Sciences Center in the Sunrise Valley
The earliest known Lithuanian glosses (between 1520 and 1530) written in the margins of Johannes Herolt book Liber Discipuli de eruditione Christifidelium. Words: teprÿdav[ſ]ʒÿ (let it strike), vbagÿſte (indigence)
The first Lithuanian printed book Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas (1547, Königsberg)
The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512–1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian Armed Forces over Moscow troops (1564).
Vilnius Cathedral by Laurynas Gucevičius
Gryčia (traditional dwelling house, built in the 19th century)
Kings' Fairy Tale (1908–1909) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania
Painter and composer M.K. Čiurlionis
Rock band Antis, which under firm censorship actively mocked the Soviet Union regime by using metaphors in their lyrics, during an Anti-Sovietism, Anti-communism concert in 1987
Lithuanian dark rye bread
Cepelinai, a potato-based dumpling dish characteristic of Lithuanian cuisine with meat, curd or mushrooms
Lithuania has longlasting beer brewing traditions
Lithuania men's national basketball team is ranked eighth worldwide in FIBA Rankings.

The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries dismantled it in 1772–1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory.

Congress Poland

Polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a semi-autonomous Polish state and successor to Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw.

Map of Congress Poland, circa 1815, following the Congress of Vienna. The Russian Empire is shown in light green.
Eagle of an officer in the Army of Congress Poland
Map of Congress Poland, circa 1815, following the Congress of Vienna. The Russian Empire is shown in light green.
Naval Ensign of Polish ships (1784–19th century)
The Kingdom of Poland, 1815–1830
Administrative divisions of Congress Poland in 1830
An advertisement of cameras made by a Polish company FOS (1905). Cameras, objectives and stereoscopes were exclusively made in Congress Poland.
An early photograph of Manufaktura in Łódź. The city was considered to be one of the largest textile industry centres in Europe and was nicknamed Polish Manchester.

Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years.

Poland

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

With the end of the prosperous Polish Golden Age, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century.

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria

Kingdom within the Austrian Empire, later Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg monarchy.

Galicia and Lodomeria in Austria-Hungary (map showing territorial scope from 1849 to 1918)
Physical map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, 1849–1918
Galicia and Lodomeria in Austria-Hungary (map showing territorial scope from 1849 to 1918)
Galician slaughter (Polish "Rzeź galicyjska") by Jan Lewicki (1795–1871)
The Galician Sejm (parliament) in Lviv
The Siege of Przemyśl in 1915
Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Galicia, 1914
The Vice-regency Office in Lviv
People of East Galicia
Map of a region where Ruthenians and Russians lived in the Austrian Empire – Galicia and Hungarian Russia (Carpathian Ruthenia) – by Dmitry Vergun
Until 1918, Choral Synagogue of Drohobych had been the central synagogue of Galicia and Lodomeria
Rail lines of Galicia before 1897
The 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment at the Battle of Custoza
Shako of the Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848
Rudolf Barracks in Kraków
Boundaries of modern states overlaid on the kingdom's boundaries
1772–1800, 1849–90
1800–49, 1890-1918

In the aftermath of the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, the region was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland in the 14th century and remained in Poland until the 18th-century partitions.

Stanisław August Poniatowski

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, and the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Portrait by Marcello Bacciarelli, 1786
Personal coat of arms
Aged 14
Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, Poniatowski's mentor, by John Giles Eccardt
Grand Duchess Catherine Alexeyevna, 1745, by Louis Caravaque
Banner of Poland during the reign of Stanisław II
Stanisław August's 1764 election as king, depicted by Bernardo Bellotto.
Stanisław August in coronation robes
Tadeusz Rejtan's famous gesture of protest at the Partition Sejm, as depicted by Matejko
Constitution of 3 May 1791, by Matejko, 1891
The three Partitions of Poland-Lithuania: Russian (purple and red), Austrian (green), Prussian (blue)
Portrait by Élisabeth-Louise Vigée-Le Brun, 1797
Poniatowski on his deathbed, 1798, by Bacciarelli
Artwork with the Coat of arms of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1780
Łazienki Park: monument to John III Sobieski, meant to recall anti-Ottoman sentiment during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
Polish coin bearing the coat of arms of King Stanisław II August, c. 1766
Manuscript of the Constitution of 3 May 1791
Poniatowski: pencil drawing by Jan Matejko
Elżbieta Szydłowska Grabowska, by Johann Baptist von Lampi the Elder
Coat of Arms of Stanisław August Poniatowski with colland of Order of White Eagle

A controversial figure in Poland's history, he is criticized primarily for his failure to resolutely stand against and prevent the partitions, which led to the destruction of the Polish state.

Catherine the Great

Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's last empress regnant and longest-ruling female leader.

Portrait of Catherine II in her 50s, by Johann Baptist von Lampi the Elder
Young Catherine soon after her arrival in Russia, by Louis Caravaque
Portrait of the Grand Duchess Ekaterina Alekseyevna around the time of her wedding, by George Christoph Grooth, 1745
Equestrian portrait of Grand Duchess Ekaterina Alekseyevna
Tsar Peter III reigned only six months; he died on 17 July 1762.
Catherine II on a balcony of the Winter Palace on 9 July 1762, the day of the coup
Alexander Bezborodko, the chief architect of Catherine's foreign policy after the death of Nikita Panin
Equestrian portrait of Catherine in the Preobrazhensky Regiment's uniform, by Vigilius Eriksen
Monument to the founders of Odessa: Catherine and her companions José de Ribas, François Sainte de Wollant, Platon Zubov and Grigory Potemkin
Catherine extended the borders of the Russian Empire southward to absorb the Crimean Khanate
A 1791 British caricature of an attempted mediation between Catherine (on the right, supported by Austria and France) and the Ottoman Empire
The partitions of Poland, carried out by Russia, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg monarchy in 1772, 1793 and 1795
A 5-kopeck coin bearing the monogram of Catherine the Great and the Imperial coat of arms, dated 1791
Punishment with a knout
Captured Russian officials and aristocrats being tried by Pugachev
A satire on Catherine's morals and on the Russo-Turkish war, from 1791
Marble statue of Catherine II in the guise of Minerva (1789–1790), by Fedot Shubin
The throne of Empress Catherine II
Inauguration of Imperial Academy of Arts in 1757
Portrait of Catherine II
The Bolshoi Theatre in the early 19th century
Catherine visits Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov
Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, the closest female friend of Empress Catherine and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment
The Moscow Orphanage
The Smolny Institute, the first Russian Institute for Noble Maidens and the first European state higher education institution for women
Catherine II in the Russian national costume
Bashkir riders from the Ural steppes
Russian Empire in 1792
St. Catherine Cathedral in Kingisepp, an example of Late Baroque architecture
Count Grigory Orlov, by Fyodor Rokotov
Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last King of Poland
Catherine II and Potemkin on the Millennium Monument in Novgorod
1794 portrait of Catherine, age approximately 65, with the Chesme Column in the background
Catherine's last favourite Platon Zubov
Monument to Catherine the Great in Saint Petersburg, surrounded by prominent persons of her era

In the west, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine's former lover King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, was eventually partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share.