Pascal (programming language)

PascalPascal programming languageISO 7185Pascal languagePascal-SCPASCAL-XSCAlphaPascalExtended PascalISO/IEC 10206ISO/IEC 10206:1990 Extended Pascal
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.wikipedia
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Niklaus Wirth

WirthN. WirthWirth, Niklaus
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
He has designed several programming languages, including Pascal, and pioneered several classic topics in software engineering.

Array data type

arrayarraysmulti-dimensional array
On top of ALGOL's scalars and arrays, Pascal enabled defining complex datatypes and building dynamic and recursive data structures such as lists, trees and graphs.
For example, in the Pascal programming language, the declaration, defines a new array data type called.

ALGOL 60

ALGOLALGOL 60 programming languageAlgol 60 Report
Based on Wirth's book, Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs, Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language.
It gave rise to many other programming languages, including CPL, Simula, BCPL, B, Pascal, and C.

Object Pascal

DelphiDelphi programming languageDCU
A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Successful commercial applications like Adobe Photoshop were written in Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Pascal, while applications like Total Commander, Skype and Macromedia Captivate were written in Delphi (Object Pascal).
Object Pascal is an extension to the Pascal programming language that provides object-oriented features such as classes and methods.

Nested function

nestednested subroutinesLocal function
Unlike most languages in the C-family, Pascal allows nested procedure definitions to any level of depth, and also allows most kinds of definitions and declarations inside subroutines (procedures and functions).
Nested functions are used in many approaches to structured programming, including early ones, such as ALGOL, Simula 67 and Pascal, and also in many modern dynamic languages and functional languages.

Structured programming

structuredProgram structurestructured program
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
Block-structured languages have a syntax for enclosing structures in some formal way, such as an if-statement bracketed by as in ALGOL 68, or a code section bracketed by, as in PL/I and Pascal, whitespace indentation as in Python - or the curly braces of C and many later languages.

Modula-2

Modula 2ModulaModula-2 programming language
Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Wirth viewed Modula-2 as a successor to his earlier programming languages Pascal and Modula.

UCSD Pascal

UCSD p-SystemP-codeP-System
One of the early successes for language was the introduction of UCSD Pascal, a version that ran on a custom operating system that could be ported to different platforms.
UCSD Pascal is a Pascal programming language system that runs on the UCSD p-System, a portable, highly machine-independent operating system.

ALGOL 68

Algol68ALGOL-68GOST 27974-88
The ALGOL X efforts would go on to choose a much more complex language, ALGOL 68.
Many languages were developed specifically as a response to the perceived complexity of the language, the most notable being Pascal, or were reimplementations for specific roles, like Ada.

Oberon (programming language)

OberonOberon programming languageOberon-07
Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Oberon is a general-purpose programming language created in 1986 by Niklaus Wirth and the latest member of the Wirthian family of ALGOL-like languages (Euler, Algol-W, Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2).

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
The United States government standardized Ada, a systems programming language derived from Pascal and intended for use by defense contractors.

Subroutine

functionfunctionssubroutines
Unlike most languages in the C-family, Pascal allows nested procedure definitions to any level of depth, and also allows most kinds of definitions and declarations inside subroutines (procedures and functions).
Some programming languages, such as Pascal, Fortran, Ada and many dialects of BASIC, distinguish between functions or function subprograms, which provide an explicit return value to the calling program, and subroutines or procedures, which do not.

Turbo Pascal

Borland PascalPascalBorland Pascal 7
The Object Pascal extensions were added to Turbo Pascal with the release of version 5.5 in 1989.
Turbo Pascal is a software development system that includes a compiler and an integrated development environment (IDE) for the Pascal programming language running on CP/M, CP/M-86, and DOS.

Imperative programming

imperativeimperative programming languageimperative language
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
In the 1970s, Pascal was developed by Niklaus Wirth, and C was created by Dennis Ritchie while he was working at Bell Laboratories.

TeX

TeX Users GroupTUGPlain TeX
The typesetting system TeX by Donald E. Knuth was written in WEB, the original literate programming system, based on DEC PDP-10 Pascal.
The language used is called WEB and produces programs in DEC PDP-10 Pascal.

Strong and weak typing

strongweakstrongly typed
Pascal has strong typing on all objects, which means that one type of data cannot be converted or interpreted as another without explicit conversions.

Data structure

data structuresstructurestructures
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
For example, the C (a direct descendant of BCPL) and Pascal languages support structs and records, respectively, in addition to vectors (one-dimensional arrays) and multi-dimensional arrays.

Compiler

compiledcompilerscompile
Compilers were also available for many microcomputers as the field emerged in the late 1970s.
Thus, partly driven by the resource limitations of early systems, many early languages were specifically designed so that they could be compiled in a single pass (e.g., Pascal).

Unix

UNIX operating systemAT&T UnixUnix-like
It was displaced by the C programming language during the late 1980s and early 1990s as UNIX-based systems became popular, and especially with the release of C++.

GNU Pascal

Standard Pascal
The GNU Pascal compiler is one notable exception, being written in C.
GNU Pascal (GPC) is a Pascal compiler composed of a frontend to GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), similar to the way Fortran and other languages were added to GCC.

String (computer science)

stringstringscharacter string
By this time, a number of problems in ALGOL had been identified, notably the lack of a standardized string system.
This convention is used in many Pascal dialects; as a consequence, some people call such a string a Pascal string or P-string.

Macintosh Programmer's Workshop

MPWApple's MPW CMPW Make
Successful commercial applications like Adobe Photoshop were written in Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Pascal, while applications like Total Commander, Skype and Macromedia Captivate were written in Delphi (Object Pascal).
MPW provided a command line environment and tools, including 68k and PowerPC assemblers as well as Pascal, C and C++ compilers.

Clascal

This led initially to Clascal, introduced in 1983.
It was an extension of Lisa Pascal, which in turn harked back to the UCSD Pascal model originally implemented on the Apple II.

Application framework

frameworkframeworksapplication development framework
This was introduced on the Macintosh in 1985 as part of the MacApp application framework, and became Apple's primary development language into the early 1990s.
Originally written in an extended (object-oriented) version of Pascal termed Object Pascal, it was later rewritten in C++.

Macintosh

Apple MacintoshMacMacs
This led to the use of Pascal becoming the primary high-level language used for development in the Apple Lisa, and later, the Macintosh.
Despite standardizing on Pascal for software development Apple did not release a native-code Pascal compiler.