Passive smoking

second-hand smokesecondhand smokeenvironmental tobacco smokesecond hand smokepassive smokepassivesecond-hand smokingsecond-hand tobacco smokesecondhand tobacco smokeTobacco smoke
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called secondhand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.wikipedia
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Smoking ban

ban on smokingbannednon-smoking
These risks have been a major motivation for smoke-free laws in workplaces and indoor public places, including restaurants, bars and night clubs, as well as some open public spaces.
Smoking bans are enacted in an attempt to protect people from the effects of second-hand smoke, which include an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, emphysema, and other diseases.

Lung cancer

lungbronchogenic carcinomalungs
These cases are often caused by a combination of genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, second-hand smoke, or other forms of air pollution.

List of smoking bans

smoking banssmoking banban smoking
These risks have been a major motivation for smoke-free laws in workplaces and indoor public places, including restaurants, bars and night clubs, as well as some open public spaces.
The smoking ban applies to all public areas where non-smokers could suffer from second-hand smoke including open public areas like sport stadiums, arenas, open-air theatres, tram and bus stations etc.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Residential exposure to radon gas, for example, has similar cancer risks as passive smoking.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

emphysemaCOPDpulmonary emphysema
Their analysis reported no statistically significant relationship between passive smoking and lung cancer, coronary heart disease (CHD), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, though the accompanying editorial noted that "they may overemphasise the negative nature of their findings."
In non-smokers, exposure to second-hand smoke is the cause in up to 20% of cases.

Smoking

smokerssmokersmoke
Further reports confirmed this link in the 1980s and concluded in 1986 that passive smoking was also harmful.

Nicotine

nicotine addictionnicotine sulfateaddicted to nicotine
Carbon monoxide monitored through breath, nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanates, and proteins are the most specific biological markers of tobacco smoke exposure.
Some research indicates that the contribution of nicotine obtained from food is substantial in comparison to inhalation of second-hand smoke.

Sidestream smoke

side-stream smoke
Sidestream smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals, including 69 known carcinogens.
Sidestream smoke is the main component (around 85%) of second-hand smoke (SHS), also known as Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) or passive smoking.

Preterm birth

Pretermpremature birthpremature
Passive smoking and/or smoking before the pregnancy influences the probability of a preterm birth.

Birth weight

birthweightlow birthweightlow birth weight
Environmental factors, including exposure of the mother to secondhand smoke can be a factor in determining the birth weight of child.

Tooth decay

dental cariescariescavities
Exposure of children to secondhand tobacco smoke is associated with tooth decay.

Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
Cigarette smoking and second-hand smoke (passive smoke) may reduce the effectiveness of medications such as corticosteroids.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsPAHsPAH
Of special concern are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, and aromatic amines, such as 4-aminobiphenyl, all known to be highly carcinogenic.
In industrial countries, people who smoke tobacco products, or who are exposed to second-hand smoke, are among the most highly exposed groups; tobacco smoke contributes to 90% of indoor PAH levels in the homes of smokers.

Sinusitis

sinus infectionrhinosinusitischronic sinusitis
Both smoking and secondhand smoke are associated with chronic rhinosinusitis.

Third-hand smoke

The term "third-hand smoke" was recently coined to identify the residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished and secondhand smoke has cleared from the air.
The 'third-hand' component of the term is a reference to the remnants on surfaces after "second-hand smoke" has cleared out.

Steven Milloy

Steve MilloyJunkScience.comSteven J. Milloy
Steven Milloy, the "junk science" commentator for Fox News and a former Philip Morris consultant, claimed that "of the 19 studies" on passive smoking "only 8— slightly more than 42%— reported statistically significant increases in heart disease incidence.."
He describes himself as a libertarian and his close financial and organizational ties to tobacco and oil companies have been the subject of criticism from a number of sources, as Milloy has consistently disputed the scientific consensus on climate change and the health risks of second-hand smoke.

Center for Indoor Air Research

The Court found that the study had been funded and managed by the Center for Indoor Air Research, a tobacco industry front group tasked with "offsetting" damaging studies on passive smoking, as well as by Philip Morris who stated that Enstrom's work was "clearly litigation-oriented."
The organization funded research on indoor air pollution, some of which pertained to passive smoking and some of which did not.

Geoffrey Kabat

A 2003 study by James Enstrom and Geoffrey Kabat, published in the British Medical Journal, argued that the harms of passive smoking had been overstated.
In 2003, Kabat, who then worked at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, co-authored a study in BMJ examining the association between passive smoking and tobacco-related mortality.

Cotinine

Carbon monoxide monitored through breath, nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanates, and proteins are the most specific biological markers of tobacco smoke exposure.
The level of cotinine in the blood, saliva, and urine is proportionate to the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke, so it is a valuable indicator of tobacco smoke exposure, including secondary (passive) smoke.

Takeshi Hirayama

He has been credited with publishing the first study linking passive smoking to lung cancer, and also conducted research on the relationship between certain dietary factors and cancer.

Funding bias

Industry Funded Studiesinfluenced the outcome
The tobacco industry, for example, would publish their own internal research that invariably found minimal adverse health effects of passive smoking.

James Enstrom

A 2003 study by James Enstrom and Geoffrey Kabat, published in the British Medical Journal, argued that the harms of passive smoking had been overstated.
In 1996, Enstrom requested that the tobacco industry provide him with funds to conduct research into the health effects of passive smoking.

FOREST

Freedom Organisation for the Right to Enjoy Smoking Tobacco
Eyres, meanwhile, was suffering from increasing ill-health as a result of HIV, and Chris Tame was recruited to succeed both as the organisation's effective leader in 1988; a non-smoker, Tame voiced a concern about the potential wider impact of measures to reduce exposure from second-hand smoke, arguing from a libertarian perspective that individuals’ right to make their own health decisions may need defending.

Health effects of tobacco

health effectsHealth effects of tobacco smokingsmoking
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that each year tobacco causes about 6 million deaths (about 10% of all deaths) with 600,000 of these occurring in non smokers due to second hand smoke.

Institute of Public Affairs

IPA ReviewGeorgina DowerInstitute for Public Affairs
The industry also funded libertarian and conservative think tanks, such as the Cato Institute in the United States and the Institute of Public Affairs in Australia which criticised both scientific research on passive smoking and policy proposals to restrict smoking.
In the 1990s, the IPA was funded by the tobacco industry to conduct research that "attacked the science behind passive smoking".