Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PAMPspathogen-associated molecular patternsPAMPpathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)Pathogen Associated Molecular PatternsMAMPsmicrobe-associated molecular patterns(MAMPS/PAMPS)(pathogen-associated molecular patternsconserved piece
These molecules can be referred to as small molecular motifs conserved within a class of microbes.wikipedia
108 Related Articles

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
They are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both plants and animals.
They are proteins expressed, mainly, by cells of the innate immune system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells, to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with components of host's cells that are released during cell damage or death.

Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
They are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both plants and animals.
TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

TLR4

Toll-like receptor 4TLR 4TLR-4
LPSs are specifically recognised by TLR4, a recognition receptor of the innate immune system. Purified cell wall components of mycobacteria activate mainly TLR2 and also TLR4.
They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity.

TLR3

TLR 3CD283toll like receptor-3
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.
They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity.

TLR9

toll-like receptor 9TLR 9CD289
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.
TLRs are transmembrane proteins, expressed on the cell surface and the endocytic compartment and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents and initiate signalling to induce production of cytokines necessary for the innate immunity and subsequent adaptive immunity.

CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide

CpGCpG DNA sequencesCpG motifs
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.
CpG motifs are considered pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) due to their abundance in microbial genomes but their rarity in vertebrate genomes.

Damage-associated molecular pattern

DAMPsdamage-associated molecular patternsDAMP
In contrast, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) initiate and perpetuate the infectious pathogen-induced inflammatory response.

TLR 1

TLR1CD281TLR-1
TLR2 with association of TLR1 can recognize cell wall lipoprotein antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which also induce production of cytokines by macrophages.
They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity.

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
TLR2 with association of TLR1 can recognize cell wall lipoprotein antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which also induce production of cytokines by macrophages. Mycobacteria are intracellular bacteria which survive in host macrophages.
The lack of LPS receptors is important for the gut as the intestinal macrophages do not detect the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPS/PAMPS) of the intestinal microbiome.

TLR2

toll-like receptor 2TLR 2TLR-2
TLR2 with association of TLR1 can recognize cell wall lipoprotein antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which also induce production of cytokines by macrophages. Purified cell wall components of mycobacteria activate mainly TLR2 and also TLR4.
TLR2 resides on the plasma membrane where it responds to lipid-containing PAMPs such as lipoteichoic acid and di- and tri-acylated cysteine-containing lipopeptides.

Glycan

glycansN-linked GlycanN-linked glycans
A vast array of different types of molecules can serve as PAMPs, including glycans and glycoconjugates.

Glycoconjugate

glycoconjugatesgylcoconjugatessialoglycoconjugates
A vast array of different types of molecules can serve as PAMPs, including glycans and glycoconjugates.

Lipopolysaccharide

endotoxinLPSlipopolysaccharides
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), endotoxins found on the cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria, are considered to be the prototypical class of PAMPs.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), endotoxins found on the cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria, are considered to be the prototypical class of PAMPs.

Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negativeGram negativeGram-negative bacterium
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), endotoxins found on the cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria, are considered to be the prototypical class of PAMPs.

Flagellin

Bacterial flagellindue to flagellin mutationsFLS2
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

TLR5

Toll-like Receptor 5TLR 5
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

Lipoteichoic acid

lipotechoic acidlipoteichoic acids
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positiveGram positivegram-positive bacterium
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

Peptidoglycan

mureinpeptidoglycanspeptidoglycan layer
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basis
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria (recognized by TLR2), peptidoglycan (recognized by TLR2), and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9.

Interferon

interferonsIFNIFN-γ
The recognition of PAMPs by the PRRs triggers activation of several signaling cascades in the host immune cells like the stimulation of interferons (IFNs) or other cytokines.

Mycobacterium

mycobacteriaMycobacteriaceaemycobacterial
Mycobacteria are intracellular bacteria which survive in host macrophages.