Pathognomonic

Characteristicdefinite histological proof of such infectiondiagnosticdiagnostic symptomhallmarkpathognomicpathomnomonicspecific
Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic ) is a term, often used in medicine, that means "characteristic for a particular disease".wikipedia
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Medical sign

signsclinical signsign
A pathognomonic sign is a particular sign whose presence means that a particular disease is present beyond any doubt.
In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic.

Symptom

symptomsnon-specific symptomssymptomatic
Labelling a sign or symptom "pathognomonic" represents a marked intensification of a "diagnostic" sign or symptom.
In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic.

Negri bodies

Negri body
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.
Negri bodies are eosinophilic, sharply outlined, pathognomonic inclusion bodies (2–10 μm in diameter) found in the cytoplasm of certain nerve cells containing the virus of rabies, especially in pyramidal cells within Ammon's horn of the hippocampus.

Differential diagnosis

differential diagnosesdifferentiateddifferential
The presence of a pathognomonic finding allows immediate diagnosis, since there are no other conditions in the differential diagnosis.
The differential diagnostic procedure may be simplified if a "pathognomonic" sign or symptom is found (in which case it is almost certain that the target condition is present) or in the absence of a sine qua non sign or symptom (in which case it is almost certain that the target condition is absent).

Koplik's spots

Koplik spots
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.
They are characterized as clustered, white lesions on the buccal mucosa (opposite the upper 1st & 2nd molars) and are pathognomonic for measles.

Sine qua non

condicio sine qua nonbut-forcondiciones sine quibus non
A sign or symptom with very high sensitivity is often termed sine qua non.
In medicine, the term sine qua non (contrast with pathognomonic) is often used in regard to any sign, symptom, or finding whose absence would very likely mean absence of the target disease or condition.

Tophus

tophigouty tophitophaceous
Tophi are pathognomonic for the disease gout.

Acute tubular necrosis

tubular necrosisischemic kidney failurekidney injury
The presence of "muddy brown casts" of epithelial cells found in the urine during urinalysis is pathognomonic for ATN.

Schiller–Duval body

Schiller-Duval bodiesSchiller Duval bodies
Schiller-Duval bodies are present in approximately 50% of these tumors, and if found are pathognomonic.

Aschoff body

Aschoff bodies
The pathognomonic feature of pancarditis in the case of rheumatic heart disease is the presence of Aschoff nodules or Aschoff bodies.

Michaelis–Gutmann bodies

Michaelis-Gutmann bodiesMichaelis–Gutmann body
M-G bodies are a pathognomonic feature of malakoplakia, an inflammatory condition that affects the genitourinary tract.

Endodermal sinus tumor

Yolk sac tumoryolk sac tumouryolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor)
Schiller-Duval bodies on histology are pathognomonic and seen in the context of the endodermal sinus-like pattern.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic ) is a term, often used in medicine, that means "characteristic for a particular disease".

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic ) is a term, often used in medicine, that means "characteristic for a particular disease".

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The word is an adjective of Greek origin derived from πάθος pathos "disease" and γνώμων gnomon "indicator" (from γιγνώσκω gignosko "I know, I recognize").

Sensitivity and specificity

sensitivityspecificitysensitive
A pathognomonic sign or symptom has very high specificity but does not need to have high sensitivity: for example it can sometimes be absent in a certain disease, since the term only implies that, when it is present, the doctor instantly knows the patient's illness.

Mouth

oral cavityoralorally
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.

Xanthoma

xanthomatosisXanthoma tuberosumEruptive xanthoma
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.

Hyperlipidemia

hyperlipoproteinemiahyperlipidaemiaPrimary hyperlipoproteinemia
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.

Rabies

rabidhydrophobiamad dog
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.

Rash

skin rashrashesskin rashes
Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, Negri bodies within brain tissue infected with rabies, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura.