Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologiespathologistspathologicgeneral pathologyPathobiologypathologicallypathobiologicalhistopathologist
Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.wikipedia
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Specialty (medicine)

medical specialtyspecialtyspecialist
However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is often used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology", an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease, mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples.
Examples include children (pediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology), or primary care (family medicine).

Cytopathology

cytologysmear testcellular pathology
Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.

Forensic pathology

forensic pathologistforensic pathologistspathologist
Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse.

Oral and maxillofacial pathology

oral pathologypathologydisease
Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).
It is sometimes considered to be a specialty of dentistry and pathology.

Histopathology

histopathologicalhistopathologichistopathologist
Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology). Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or anatomic pathology (United States) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (as in a general examination or an autopsy).
Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides.

Rudolf Virchow

VirchowRudolph VirchowRudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow
Modern medicine was particularly advanced by further developments of the microscope to analyze tissues, to which Rudolf Virchow gave a significant contribution, leading to a slew of research developments.
He is known as "the father of modern pathology" and as the founder of social medicine, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine".

Medical school

medical studentFaculty of Medicinemedical students
Biomedical research into disease incorporates the work of a vast variety of life science specialists, whereas, in most parts of the world, to be licensed to practice pathology as medical specialty, one has to complete medical school and secure a license to practice medicine.
In preclinical sciences, students study subjects such as biochemistry, genetics, pharmacology, pathology, anatomy, physiology and medical microbiology, among others.

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
Combined with developments in the understanding of general physiology, by the beginning of the 20th century, the study of pathology had begun to split into a number of rarefied fields and resulting in the development of large number of modern specialties within pathology and related disciplines of diagnostic medicine.
The physiologic state is the condition occurring from normal body function, while the pathological state is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans.

Molecular pathology

molecularmolecular changesMolecular diagnostic
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or anatomic pathology (United States) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (as in a general examination or an autopsy).
Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids.

Gross examination

grossgross autopsygrossly
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or anatomic pathology (United States) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (as in a general examination or an autopsy).
Gross examination or "grossing" is the process by which pathology specimens are inspected with the bare eye to obtain diagnostic information, while being processed for further microscopic examination.

List of life sciences

life scienceslife sciencebioscience
The word pathology also refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices.

Skin biopsy

punch biopsyskin biopsiespunch biopsies
Sometimes, however, those criteria do not lead to a conclusive diagnosis, and a skin biopsy is taken to be examined under the microscope using usual histological tests.
Skin biopsy is a biopsy technique in which a skin lesion is removed to be sent to a pathologist to render a microscopic diagnosis.

Autopsy

post-mortemautopsiespost mortem
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or anatomic pathology (United States) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (as in a general examination or an autopsy).
Autopsies are usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist.

Renal pathology

renal pathologistrenal pathologists
Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).
In the academic setting, renal pathologists work closely with nephrologists and transplant surgeons, who typically obtain diagnostic specimens via percutaneous renal biopsy.

Medical imaging

imagingdiagnostic imagingdiagnostic radiology
Biopsy is usually requested after a mass is detected by medical imaging.
Although imaging of removed organs and tissues can be performed for medical reasons, such procedures are usually considered part of pathology instead of medical imaging.

Biopsy

biopsiestissue biopsybiopsied
Histopathological examination of tissues starts with surgery, biopsy, or autopsy.
The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically.

Forensic science

forensicforensicsforensic scientist
Forensic pathology is a major component in the trans-disciplinary field of forensic science.
Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
These tests can be necessary to diagnose between infection, inflammation, or fibrotic conditions.
It is useful to differentiate inflammation and infection because there are typical situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion – for example, atherosclerosis, trauma, ischemia, and autoimmune diseases including type III hypersensitivity.

Frozen section procedure

frozen sectioncryosectioncryosectioning
The most common fixative is formalin, although frozen section fixing is also common.
The intraoperative consultation is the name given to the whole intervention by the pathologist, which includes not only frozen section but also gross evaluation of the specimen, examination of cytology preparations taken on the specimen (e.g. touch imprints), and aliquoting of the specimen for special studies (e.g. molecular pathology techniques, flow cytometry).

Medical diagnosis

diagnosisdiagnosticdiagnostic criteria
Combined with developments in the understanding of general physiology, by the beginning of the 20th century, the study of pathology had begun to split into a number of rarefied fields and resulting in the development of large number of modern specialties within pathology and related disciplines of diagnostic medicine. Pathology is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research.

Ancient Greek medicine

Greek physicianGreek medicineMedicine in ancient Greece
By the Hellenic period of ancient Greece, a concerted causal study of disease was underway (see Medicine in ancient Greece), with many notable early physicians (such as Hippocrates, for whom the modern Hippocratic Oath is named) having developed methods of diagnosis and prognosis for a number of diseases.
Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

Pathogenesis

pathogeneticpathogenicmicrobial pathogenesis
As a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations).
Often, a potential cause is identified by epidemiological observations before a pathological link can be drawn between the cause and the disease.

Neurosurgery

neurosurgeonbrain surgeryneurosurgical
Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery.
Neuropathology is a specialty within the study of pathology focused on the disease of the brain, spinal cord, and neural tissue.

Medical microbiology

Clinical Microbiologyclinical virologymicrobiological
Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine, as well as tissues, using the tools of chemistry, clinical microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology.
Not all medical microbiologists study microbial pathology; some study common, non-pathogenic species to determine whether their properties can be used to develop antibiotics or other treatment methods.

Psychopathy

psychopathpsychopathicsociopath
Idiomatically, "a pathology" may also refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases (as in the statement "the many different forms of cancer have diverse pathologies"), and the affix path is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment (as in cardiomyopathy) and psychological conditions (such as psychopathy).
In medicine, patho- has a more specific meaning of disease (thus pathology has meant the study of disease since 1610, and psychopathology has meant the study of mental disorder in general since 1847.