Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)C-type of lectin-like domains proteinsNOD-like receptorspathogen recognition receptorspattern recognitionpattern recognition receptors (PRR)pattern-recognition receptorpattern-recognition receptors (PRRs)
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system.wikipedia
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Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PAMPspathogen-associated molecular patternsPAMP
They are proteins expressed, mainly, by cells of the innate immune system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells, to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with components of host's cells that are released during cell damage or death.
They are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both plants and animals.

NOD-like receptor

Nod-like receptorsNOD-like receptors (NLRs)(NOD)-like receptor
For more details, see NOD-like receptor.
They are types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and play key roles in the regulation of innate immune response.

RIG-I-like receptor

RLR(RIG)-I-like receptorsretinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor
RIG-I-like receptors (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, RLRs) are a type of intracellular pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition of viruses by the innate immune system.

TLR4

Toll-like receptor 4TLR 4TLR-4
TLRs tend to dimerize, TLR4 forms homodimers, and TLR6 can dimerize with either TLR1 or TLR2.
TLR4 is a transmembrane protein, member of the toll-like receptor family, which belongs to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family.

TLR 1

TLR1CD281TLR-1
TLRs tend to dimerize, TLR4 forms homodimers, and TLR6 can dimerize with either TLR1 or TLR2.
TLR 1 is a member of the toll-like receptor family (TLR) of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system.

Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
Recognition of extracellular or endosomal pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by transmembrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs).
TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
They are also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive immunity.
On the other hand, however, the various subsets may also be considered part of the innate immune system where a restricted TCR or NK receptors may be used as a pattern recognition receptor.

TLR3

TLR 3CD283toll like receptor-3
The TRIF-dependent pathway is induced by macrophages and DCs after TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation.
TLR3 is a member of the toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system.

Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune response
They are proteins expressed, mainly, by cells of the innate immune system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells, to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with components of host's cells that are released during cell damage or death. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system.
These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

Toll-like receptor 11

TLR11TLR 11
Studies have been conducted on TLR11 as well, and it has been shown that it recognizes flagellin and profilin-like proteins in mice.
Proteins in the TLR family are pattern recognition receptors whose task is to alert the immune system of foreign invaders.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
The mannose receptor (MR) is a PRR primarily present on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells.
This is done through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs).

CLEC7A

Dectin 1Dectin-1CD369
The C-type lectin receptors are class of signalling pattern recognition receptors which are involved in antifungal immunity, but also play important roles in immune responses to other pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and nematodes.

Mannose receptor

MRC1MRC2Endo180
The mannose receptor (MR) is a PRR primarily present on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells.
In this way, the mannose receptor acts as a pattern recognition receptor.

NOD2

CARD15NOD-2NOD2 (CARD15) gene
NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which is similar in structure to resistant proteins of plants and recognizes molecules containing the specific structure called muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that is found in certain bacteria.

Inflammasome

inflammasomesinflammasome protein complexinflammasomes,
NLRP3 and NLRP4 are responsible for the inflammasome activation.
Inflammasome activation is initiated by different kinds of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that respond to either microbe-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated by the host cell.

Plant disease resistance

resistanceplant immunitydisease resistance
This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems.
The first tier is primarily governed by pattern recognition receptors that are activated by recognition of evolutionarily conserved pathogen or microbial–associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs).

Mincle receptor

CLEC4EMincle
It is a pattern recognition receptor that can recognize glycolipids including mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM).

Collectin

COLEC12collectins
Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRs) and the LRR, XA21D are all secreted proteins.
Collectins are soluble pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).

Peptidoglycan recognition protein

Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRs) and the LRR, XA21D are all secreted proteins.
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a group of highly conserved pattern recognition receptors with at least one peptidoglycan recognition domain capable of recognizing the peptidoglycan wall of bacteria.

Pentraxins

pentraxin
Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRs) and the LRR, XA21D are all secreted proteins.
They are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).

C-reactive protein

CRPC reactive proteinhigh-sensitivity C-reactive protein
Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRs) and the LRR, XA21D are all secreted proteins.
C-reactive protein was the first pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to be identified.

Interleukin-1 family

IL-1interleukin-1interleukin 1
Some of these proteins recognize endogenous or microbial molecules or stress responses and form oligomers that, in animals, activate inflammatory caspases (e.g. caspase 1) causing cleavage and activation of important inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, and/or activate the NF-κB signaling pathway to induce production of inflammatory molecules.
DAMPs, also known as alarmins, are recognized by innate immunity cells by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and functions as danger signals for the immune system.

NOD1

NOD-1
NOD1 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which is similar in structure to resistant proteins of plants, and mediates innate and acquired immunity by recognizing molecules containing D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) moiety, including bacterial peptidoglycan.

RIG-I

DDX58retinoic acid-inducible gene Iretinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1)
Three RLR helicases have so far been described: RIG-I and MDA5 (recognizing 5'triphosphate-RNA and dsRNA, respectively), which activate antiviral signaling, and LGP2, which appears to act as a dominant-negative inhibitor.
RIG-I is part of the RIG-I-like receptor family, which also includes MDA5 and LGP2, and functions as a pattern recognition receptor that is a sensor for viruses such as influenza A, Sendai virus, and flavivirus.

Mannan-binding lectin

mannose-binding lectinMBLMBL2
One very important collectin is mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a major PRR of the innate immune system that binds to a wide range of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa.
MBL belongs to the class of collectins in the C-type lectin superfamily, whose function appears to be pattern recognition in the first line of defense in the pre-immune host.