Paul Kruger

KrugerPresident KrugerPresident Paul KrugerPaul "Ohm" KrügerPaul KrügerS. J. Paul KrugerStephanus Johannes Paul KrugerStephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger
Stephanus Johannes Paulus "Paul" Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904) was one of the dominant political and military figures in 19th-century South Africa, and President of the South African Republic (or Transvaal) from 1883 to 1900.wikipedia
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Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
Nicknamed Oom Paul ("Uncle Paul"), he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the Transvaal and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902.
Paul Kruger, the President of the South African Republic, issued an ultimatum on 9 October 1899, giving the British government 48 hours to withdraw all their troops from the borders of both the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, albeit Kruger had ordered Commandos to the Natal border in early September and Britain only had troops in garrison towns far from the border, failing which the Transvaal, allied to the Orange Free State, would declare war on the British government.

Jameson Raid

Dr. Jameson's RaidAftermathfailed raid
The uitlander problem and the associated tensions with Britain dominated Kruger's attention for the rest of his presidency, to which he was re-elected in 1888, 1893 and 1898, and led to the Jameson Raid of 1895–96 and ultimately the Second Boer War.
Paul Kruger was president of the republic at the time.

Heroes' Acre, Pretoria

Heroes' AcreHeroes Acre Pretoria
After he died in Switzerland at the age of 78 in 1904, his body was returned to South Africa for a state funeral, and buried in the Heroes' Acre in Pretoria.
It is the burial place of a number of historical figures including Andries Pretorius, Paul Kruger and Hendrik Verwoerd.

Boer

Boerstrekboerswhite farmers
Nicknamed Oom Paul ("Uncle Paul"), he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the Transvaal and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902.
If the formula, "In all things political, purely despotic; in all things commercial, purely monopolist," was true of the government of the Dutch East India Company in the 18th century, it was equally true of Kruger's government in the latter part of the 19th.

London Convention (1884)

London ConventionLondon Convention of 1884convention of 1884
In 1884 he headed a third deputation that brokered the London Convention, under which Britain recognised the South African Republic as a fully independent state.
President Paul Kruger

First Boer War

FirstBoer WarFirst Anglo-Boer War
He became the leading figure in the movement to restore the South African Republic's independence, culminating in the Boers' victory in the First Boer War of 1880–81.
The Transvaal Boers, led by Paul Kruger (the future Transvaal President), thereafter elected to deal first with the perceived Zulu threat to the status quo, and local issues, before directly opposing the British annexation.

Vice State President of the South African Republic

Vice PresidentVice-President
Kruger was appointed Vice-President in March 1877, shortly before the South African Republic was annexed by Britain as the Transvaal.

Rustenburg

PhokengRustenburg Surrounding AreaRustenburg, South Africa
Boer tradition of the time dictated that men were entitled to choose two 6000 acre farms—one for crops and one for grazing—upon becoming enfranchised burghers at the age of 16. Kruger set up his home at Waterkloof, near Rustenburg in the Magaliesberg area.
One of the oldest Boer settlements in the north, Rustenburg was the home of Paul Kruger, president of the South African Republic, who bought a 5 square kilometer farm to the north-west of the town in 1863.

Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
Nicknamed Oom Paul ("Uncle Paul"), he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the Transvaal and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902.
Thereupon Pretorius, aided by Paul Kruger, conducted a raid into the Free State territory.

Pretoria

Pretoria, GautengPretoria, South AfricaSilverton
After he died in Switzerland at the age of 78 in 1904, his body was returned to South Africa for a state funeral, and buried in the Heroes' Acre in Pretoria.
Kruger House (Residence of the president of the ZAR, Paul Kruger)

1883 Transvaal presidential election

electedTransvaal presidential election
Kruger served until 1883 as a member of an executive triumvirate, then was elected President.
The election was held after the country's triumvarate leadership, consisting of Paul Kruger, Piet Joubert and Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, was abolished.

State President of the South African Republic

President of the Executive Council of the South African Republiccomplete listPresident
Stephanus Johannes Paulus "Paul" Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904) was one of the dominant political and military figures in 19th-century South Africa, and President of the South African Republic (or Transvaal) from 1883 to 1900.

Burgher (Boer republics)

burghersburgher
Boer tradition of the time dictated that men were entitled to choose two 6000 acre farms—one for crops and one for grazing—upon becoming enfranchised burghers at the age of 16. Kruger set up his home at Waterkloof, near Rustenburg in the Magaliesberg area. Following the influx of thousands of predominantly British settlers with the Witwatersrand Gold Rush of 1886, "uitlanders" (out-landers) provided almost all of the South African Republic's tax revenues but lacked civic representation; Boer burghers retained control of the government.
The uitlanders demanded full burgher rights in the Transvaal, but the local government under President Paul Kruger was unwilling to grant these, surmising that the sheer number of uitlanders might imperil the republic's independence.

Witwatersrand Gold Rush

Witwatersrand gold minesgold rushSouth Africa
Following the influx of thousands of predominantly British settlers with the Witwatersrand Gold Rush of 1886, "uitlanders" (out-landers) provided almost all of the South African Republic's tax revenues but lacked civic representation; Boer burghers retained control of the government.
For a number of years all went well, but then President Paul Kruger of the South African Republic (ZAR) began getting worried so many foreigners would soon outnumber the Boers, and the first of certain "measures" were put into place.

Uitlander

uitlanders
Following the influx of thousands of predominantly British settlers with the Witwatersrand Gold Rush of 1886, "uitlanders" (out-landers) provided almost all of the South African Republic's tax revenues but lacked civic representation; Boer burghers retained control of the government.
The Transvaal government, under President Paul Kruger, were concerned as to the effect this large influx could have on the independence of the Transvaal.

Steynsburg

Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger was born on 10 October 1825 at Bulhoek, a farm in the Steynsburg area of the Cape Colony, the third child and second son of Casper Jan Hendrik Kruger (1801-1852), a farmer, and his wife Elsje (Elisa; née Steyn)(1806-1834).
Steynsburg is named after Douwe Gerbrandt Steyn, grandfather of President Paul Kruger.

Boekenhoutfontein

Kruger moved his main residence to Boekenhoutfontein, near Rustenburg, and for a time absented himself from public affairs.
Boekenhoutfontein was the farm of Paul Kruger, a 19th-century Boer resistance leader and president of the Transvaal Republic.

1888 Transvaal presidential election

18881888 elections
The uitlander problem and the associated tensions with Britain dominated Kruger's attention for the rest of his presidency, to which he was re-elected in 1888, 1893 and 1898, and led to the Jameson Raid of 1895–96 and ultimately the Second Boer War.
The result was a victory for Paul Kruger, who defeated Piet Joubert by a wide margin.

1893 Transvaal presidential election

18931893 elections
The uitlander problem and the associated tensions with Britain dominated Kruger's attention for the rest of his presidency, to which he was re-elected in 1888, 1893 and 1898, and led to the Jameson Raid of 1895–96 and ultimately the Second Boer War.
The result was a victory for Paul Kruger, although there were concerns that agents of Kruger had manipulated the electoral roll.

1898 Transvaal presidential election

1898
The uitlander problem and the associated tensions with Britain dominated Kruger's attention for the rest of his presidency, to which he was re-elected in 1888, 1893 and 1898, and led to the Jameson Raid of 1895–96 and ultimately the Second Boer War.
The result was a victory for Paul Kruger.

Daniel Lindley

Daniel and Lucy Lindley
Here they met the American missionary Daniel Lindley, who gave young Paul much spiritual invigoration.
These institutions were successful and amongst the first to be confirmed was Paul Kruger who was to be the first President of South Africa.

Flat Earth

flatEarth was flatthe earth is flat
He had almost no education apart from the Bible, and through his interpretation believed the Earth was flat.
In 1898, during his solo circumnavigation of the world, Joshua Slocum encountered a group of flat-Earthers in Durban, South Africa. Three Boers, one of them a clergyman, presented Slocum with a pamphlet in which they set out to prove that the world was flat. Paul Kruger, President of the Transvaal Republic, advanced the same view: "You don't mean round the world, it is impossible! You mean in the world. Impossible!"

Afrikaners

AfrikanerAfrikaansAfrikaner people
He has been called a personification of Afrikanerdom, and remains a controversial and divisive figure; admirers venerate him as a tragic folk hero, and critics view him as the obstinate guardian of an unjust cause.
The name Krugerrand was derived from Kruger (after President Paul Kruger) and the rand monetary unit of South Africa.

Piet Joubert

Commandant-General JoubertCommandant-General Piet JoubertGeneral Joubert
Burgers had told the Acting President Piet Joubert not to fight a war in his absence, so the Transvaal government did little to combat the Bapedi raids.
During the first British annexation of the Transvaal, Joubert earned for himself the reputation of a consistent irreconcilable by refusing to hold office under the government, as Paul Kruger and other prominent Boers were doing.

Stephanus Schoeman

Pretorius tried again during 1856, holding meetings with eight-man commissions in Rustenburg, Potchefstroom and Pretoria, but Stephanus Schoeman, Zoutpansberg's new Commandant-General, repudiated these efforts.
In 1861, the Volksraad decided to take action against Schoeman, who with his followers steadfastly refused to give up his position, Paul Kruger intervened against Schoeman, however, no one was prepared to take extreme action, and bitter letters were exchanged between Schoeman and Kruger.