Paul the Apostle

PaulSaint PaulSt. PaulApostle PaulSt PaulPaul of TarsusPaulineSt. Paul the Apostlethe Apostle PaulSaint Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; Παῦλος; ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Hebrew name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle (although not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.wikipedia
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Christianity in the 1st century

Apostolic AgeApostolic Era1st century
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; Παῦλος; ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Hebrew name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle (although not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe.
Paul the Apostle, a pious Jew who had persecuted the early Christians, converted 33–36 and started to proselytize among the Gentiles.

Apostles

Twelve Apostlesapostleapostolic
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; Παῦλος; ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Hebrew name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle (although not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.
Paul is often referred to as an apostle, because he was directly taught and commissioned by a vision of Christ during his journey to Damascus.

Early centers of Christianity

JerusalemJerusalem churchAntioch
Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. According to the New Testament book Acts of the Apostles (often simply called Acts), Paul was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem prior to his conversion. In the narrative of Acts, Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light. He describes in Galatians how three years after his conversion he went to Jerusalem. After his conversion, Paul went to Damascus, where Acts 9 states he was healed of his blindness and baptized by Ananias of Damascus.
In about 50, Barnabas and Paul went to Jerusalem to meet with the "pillars of the church", James, Peter, and John.

Authorship of the Pauline epistles

believed to be writtenauthoredbelieved to have been written
Seven of the Pauline epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, with varying degrees of argument about the remainder.
The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, although many dispute the anonymous Epistle to the Hebrews as being a Pauline epistle.

Latin Church

Latin CatholicWestern ChurchLatin Rite
Today, Paul's epistles continue to be vital roots of the theology, worship and pastoral life in the Latin and Protestant traditions of the West, as well as the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox traditions of the East.
The Latin Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity through its direct leadership under the Holy See, founded by Peter and Paul, according to Catholic tradition.

Authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews

traditionally attributed to Paultraditionally considered Pauline
Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
Traditionally, Paul the Apostle was thought to be the author.

New Testament

NewThe New TestamentNew Testaments
According to the New Testament book Acts of the Apostles (often simply called Acts), Paul was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem prior to his conversion.
Regarding authorship, although the Epistle to the Hebrews does not internally claim to have been written by the Apostle Paul, some similarities in wordings to some of the Pauline Epistles have been noted and inferred.

Junia (New Testament person)

JuniaJuniasSaint Junia
In he states that his relatives, Andronicus and Junia, were Christians before he was and were prominent among the apostles.
Junia or Junias (Ιουνια / Ιουνιας, Iounia[s]) was a 1st-century Christian highly regarded and complimented by Paul the Apostle.

Resurrection of Jesus

resurrectionResurrection of Christresurrection of Jesus Christ
In the narrative of Acts, Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light.
The earliest surviving Christian writings are the letters of Paul, written between 50–57 (or possibly 48–57).

Tarsus, Mersin

TarsusTarsosBishop of Tarsus
He was from a devout Jewish family in the city of Tarsus, one of the largest trade centers on the Mediterranean coast.
It was the scene of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and the birthplace of Paul the Apostle.

Acts of the Apostles

ActsBook of ActsActs of Apostles
According to the New Testament book Acts of the Apostles (often simply called Acts), Paul was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem prior to his conversion. In the narrative of Acts, Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light.
According to Church tradition dating from the 2nd century, he was the "Luke" named as a companion of the apostle Paul in three of the letters attributed to Paul himself; this view is still sometimes advanced, but "a critical consensus emphasizes the countless contradictions between the account in Acts and the authentic Pauline letters."

Andronicus of Pannonia

AndronicusSaint AndronicusSt. Andronicus
In he states that his relatives, Andronicus and Junia, were Christians before he was and were prominent among the apostles.
Andronicus of Pannonia was a 1st-century Christian mentioned by the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Romans (chapter 16):

Saint Stephen

St. StephenStephenSt Stephen
Nothing more is known of his background until he takes an active part in the martyrdom of Stephen.
His martyrdom was witnessed by Saul of Tarsus, a Pharisee who would later become a follower of Jesus and known as Paul the Apostle.

Epistle to the Galatians

GalatiansLetter to the Galatiansbook of Galatians
He describes in Galatians how three years after his conversion he went to Jerusalem.
It is a letter from Paul the Apostle to a number of Early Christian communities in Galatia.

Pharisees

PhariseePharisaicPharisaism
Paul referred to himself as being "of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee".
There are also several references in the New Testament to the Apostle Paul being a Pharisee.

Priscilla and Aquila

PriscillaAquilaAquila and Priscilla
This was to become an initial connection with Priscilla and Aquila with whom he would partner in tentmaking and later become very important teammates as fellow missionaries.
They lived, worked, and traveled with the Apostle Paul, who described them as his "fellow workers in Christ Jesus".

Ananias of Damascus

AnaniasSt. AnaniasAnanija
He was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God. After his conversion, Paul went to Damascus, where Acts 9 states he was healed of his blindness and baptized by Ananias of Damascus.
Ananias (, same as Hebrew חנניה, Hananiah, "favoured of the ") was a disciple of Jesus at Damascus mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles in the Bible, which describes how he was sent by Jesus to restore the sight of "Saul, of Tarsus" (known later as Paul the Apostle) and provide him with additional instruction in the way of the Lord.

Acts 9

Acts 9:25
After his conversion, Paul went to Damascus, where Acts 9 states he was healed of his blindness and baptized by Ananias of Damascus.
It records Saul's conversion and the works of Saint Peter.

Gamaliel

Gamaliel the ElderRabban GamlielGamaliel I
While he was still fairly young, he was sent to Jerusalem to receive his education at the school of Gamaliel, one of the most noted rabbis in history.
Acts of the Apostles, 5 speaks of Gamaliel as a man, held in great esteem by all Jews, who spoke to not condemn the apostles of Jesus in to death, and as the Jewish law teacher of Paul the Apostle in.

John Mark

MarkJohn, called MarkMark, who is also John
John Mark leaves them and returns to Jerusalem.
John Mark is named in the Acts of the Apostles as an assistant accompanying Paul and Barnabas on their missionary journeys.

Alan F. Segal

Alan SegalAlan Franklin SegalSegal, Alan F.
Similarly, Alan Segal and Daniel Boyarin regard Paul's accounts of his conversion experience and his ascent to the heavens as the earliest first person accounts we have of a Merkabah mystic in Jewish or Christian literature.
Segal was one of the first modern scholars to write extensively on the influences of Judaism (including Second Temple Rabbinic texts, Merkabah mysticism, and Jewish apocalypticism) on Paul of Damascus.

Septuagint

LXXGreek Old TestamentGreek
He quotes from the Septuagint to assert that Jesus was the promised Christos who brought them forgiveness for their sins.
Greek scriptures were also in wide use by the time of Jesus and Paul of Tarsus, in the era of Early Christianity, because most Christian proselytes, God-fearers, and other gentile sympathizers to Hellenistic Judaism could not read Hebrew.

Incident at Antioch

condemned by Paul in Galatians 2 for not eating with the Gentilesdispute with PeterThe Paul/Cephas Incident at Antioch
Despite the agreement achieved at the Council of Jerusalem, Paul recounts how he later publicly confronted Peter in a dispute sometimes called the "Incident at Antioch", over Peter's reluctance to share a meal with Gentile Christians in Antioch because they did not strictly adhere to Jewish customs.
The incident at Antioch was an Apostolic Age dispute between the apostles Paul and Peter which occurred in the city of Antioch around the middle of the first century.

Silas

SilvanusSt SilasSaint Silas
Unable to resolve the dispute, Paul and Barnabas decided to separate; Barnabas took John Mark with him, while Silas joined Paul.
Silas or Silvanus (Greek: Σίλας/Σιλουανός; fl. 1st century AD) was a leading member of the Early Christian community, who accompanied Paul the Apostle on parts of his first and second missionary journeys.

The gospel

Good NewsGospelGospel of Jesus Christ
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; Παῦλος; ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Hebrew name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle (although not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.
The apostle Paul's gospel is of Jesus's death on the cross and resurrection to restore people's relationship with God.