Paul von Hindenburg

HindenburgPresident Hindenburgvon HindenburgField Marshal von HindenburgField Marshal Paul von HindenburgPaul HindenburgPresident Paul von HindenburgPresident von Hindenbergvon Hindenberg Field Marshal von Hindenburg
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known simply as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934), was a German general and statesman who commanded the Imperial German Army during World War I and later became President of Germany from 1925 until his death, during the Weimar Republic.wikipedia
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Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
He played a key role in the Nazi Machtergreifung in January 1933 when, under pressure from advisers, he appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany even though the Nazis were a minority in both the cabinet and the Reichstag.
Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933.

1932 German presidential election

1932 presidential electionpresidential election1932
He defeated Hitler in a runoff to win reelection in 1932.
Independent incumbent Paul von Hindenburg won a second seven-year term against Adolf Hitler of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).

Erich Ludendorff

LudendorffGeneral LudendorffGeneral Erich Ludendorff
As Wilhelm II increasingly delegated his authority to the Army High Command, Hindenburg and his deputy, General Erich Ludendorff, established a de facto military dictatorship that controlled Germany for the rest of the war. On 22 August, he was selected by the War Cabinet and the German high command (Oberste Heeresleitung, OHL) to assume command of the German Eighth Army in East Prussia, with General Erich Ludendorff as his chief of staff.
From August 1916, his appointment as Quartermaster general (Erster Generalquartiermeister) made him the leader (along with Paul von Hindenburg) of the German war efforts during World War I.

Weimar Republic

GermanyWeimar GermanyWeimar
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known simply as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934), was a German general and statesman who commanded the Imperial German Army during World War I and later became President of Germany from 1925 until his death, during the Weimar Republic.
From 1930 onwards, President Paul von Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher.

Adolf Hitler's rise to power

MachtergreifungNazi seizure of powertook power
He played a key role in the Nazi Machtergreifung in January 1933 when, under pressure from advisers, he appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany even though the Nazis were a minority in both the cabinet and the Reichstag.
President Paul von Hindenburg had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backroom intrigues.

President of Germany (1919–1945)

PresidentPresident of GermanyReichspräsident
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known simply as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934), was a German general and statesman who commanded the Imperial German Army during World War I and later became President of Germany from 1925 until his death, during the Weimar Republic.
In 1934, after the death of President Hindenburg, Adolf Hitler, already Chancellor, assumed the Presidency, but did not usually use the title of President – ostensibly out of respect for Hindenburg – and preferred to rule as Führer und Reichskanzler ("Leader and Reich Chancellor"), highlighting the positions he already held in party and government.

Reichstag Fire Decree

aftermathDecree for the Protection of People and StateReichstag'' Fire Decree
In February he approved the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended various civil liberties, and in March signed the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave Hitler's regime arbitrary powers.
The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire.

Battle of Tannenberg

TannenbergBattle of Tannenberg (1914)1914 Battle of Tannenberg
He retired with the rank of General of the Infantry in 1911, but was recalled to military service at the age of 66 following the outbreak of World War I in July 1914 and shortly thereafter received nationwide attention as the victor of the Battle of Tannenberg.
It brought considerable prestige to Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and his rising staff-officer Erich Ludendorff.

Oskar von Hindenburg

Oskar
He married the intelligent and accomplished Gertrud von Sperling (1860–1921) by whom he had two daughters, Irmengard Pauline (1880) and Annemaria (1891) and one son, Oskar (1883).
The son and aide-de-camp to Field Marshal and Reich President Paul von Hindenburg had considerable influence on the appointment of Adolf Hitler as German chancellor in January 1933.

1925 German presidential election

presidential election19251925 presidential election
Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life in 1925 to be elected the second President of Germany.
Paul von Hindenburg was elected as the second president of Germany in the second round of voting.

German Army (German Empire)

German ArmyImperial German ArmyArmy
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known simply as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934), was a German general and statesman who commanded the Imperial German Army during World War I and later became President of Germany from 1925 until his death, during the Weimar Republic.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg increasingly set foreign policy, working directly with the Emperor-- and indeed shaped his decision-making-- leaving the chancellor and civilian officials in the dark.

Ogrodzieniec, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

NeudeckOgrodzieniec
In the summer they visited his grandfather at the Hindenburg estate of Neudeck in East Prussia.
Previously called Neudeck, it was renowned as the country residence of German President Paul von Hindenburg, who died there in 1934.

Chancellor of Germany

ChancellorGerman ChancellorReichskanzler
He dissolved the Reichstag twice in 1932 and finally agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of Germany in January 1933.
After the death of President Hindenburg in 1934, Adolf Hitler, the dictatorial party leader and chancellor, took over the powers of the president.

Ingvar Kamprad

Elmtaryd
1859). One of his first-cousins was the great-grandmother of IKEA founder Ingvar Kamprad.
Achim Kamprad's mother was a distant relative of Paul von Hindenburg.

Enabling Act of 1933

dictatorshipEnabling Actconverted
In February he approved the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended various civil liberties, and in March signed the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave Hitler's regime arbitrary powers.
The act passed in both the Reichstag and Reichsrat on 23 March 1933, and was signed by President Paul von Hindenburg later that day.

Max Hoffmann

General HoffmannHoffmann
Upon arriving at Marienberg in 23 August, Hindenburg and Ludendorff were met by members of the 8th Army's staff led by Lieutenant Colonel Max Hoffmann, an expert on the Russian army.
Hoffmann, along with Hindenburg and Ludendorff, masterminded the devastating defeat of the Russian armies at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
He was his regiment's elected representative at the Palace of Versailles when the German Empire was proclaimed on 18 January 1871; he was an impressive figure: 195 cm (6 feet 5 inches) tall with a muscular frame and striking blue eyes.
The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, and Bulgaria had surrendered.

Führer

FuhrerFührer und ReichskanzlerEin Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer
Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared himself Führer und Reichskanzler, or Supreme Leader and Chancellor, which superseded both the President and Chancellor.
After Hitler's appointment as Reichskanzler (Chancellor of the Reich), Hitler had Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg sign the Reichstag Fire Decree under the pretense of a purported Communist uprising.

8th Army (German Empire)

8th ArmyEighth ArmyGerman Eighth Army
On 22 August, he was selected by the War Cabinet and the German high command (Oberste Heeresleitung, OHL) to assume command of the German Eighth Army in East Prussia, with General Erich Ludendorff as his chief of staff.
They were replaced by Paul von Hindenburg, called out of retirement, with Erich Ludendorff as his chief of staff.

Erich von Falkenhayn

FalkenhaynErich Falkenhaynvon Falkenhayn
To counter this threat, the supreme commander and Prussian War Minister Erich von Falkenhayn, who had superseded Moltke, formed a new Ninth Army, which joined Hindenburg's command.
His reputation as a war leader was attacked in Germany during and after the war, especially by the faction which supported Paul von Hindenburg.

Gertrud von Hindenburg

Gertrud von Sperling (1860–1921)Gertrud Wilhelmine
He married the intelligent and accomplished Gertrud von Sperling (1860–1921) by whom he had two daughters, Irmengard Pauline (1880) and Annemaria (1891) and one son, Oskar (1883).
She was the wife of Paul von Hindenburg, the Chief of the German Army Command in the second half of the First World War and President of Germany.

Oberste Heeresleitung

German High CommandSupreme Army CommandOHL
As Wilhelm II increasingly delegated his authority to the Army High Command, Hindenburg and his deputy, General Erich Ludendorff, established a de facto military dictatorship that controlled Germany for the rest of the war. On 22 August, he was selected by the War Cabinet and the German high command (Oberste Heeresleitung, OHL) to assume command of the German Eighth Army in East Prussia, with General Erich Ludendorff as his chief of staff.
Paul von Hindenburg's command became known as the Dritte OHL (Third OHL) but Hindenburg was "neither the intellectual centre of the strategic planning [...] nor of the new war economy", as proposed in the Hindenburg Programme of 31 August 1916.

9th Army (German Empire)

9th ArmyNinth ArmyGerman 9th Army
To counter this threat, the supreme commander and Prussian War Minister Erich von Falkenhayn, who had superseded Moltke, formed a new Ninth Army, which joined Hindenburg's command.

Battle of Łódź (1914)

Battle of ŁódźBattle of LodzŁódź
On 11 November, in a raging snowstorm, they surprised the Russian flank in the fierce Battle of Łódź, which ended the immediate Russian threat to Silesia and also captured Poland's second largest city.
On 1 November, Paul von Hindenburg was appointed commander of the two German armies on the Eastern Front.

1st Army (Russian Empire)

1st ArmyRussian First ArmyFirst Army
After the Eighth Army had been defeated by the Russian 1st Army at Gumbinnen, it had found itself in danger of encirclement as the Russian 2nd Army under General Alexander Samsonov advanced from the south towards the Vistula River.
However, the First and Second Armies were stopped by the German Eighth Army, led by Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and his Chief of Staff, General Erich Ludendorff.