Genus of about nine species of freshwater amoeboids.- Paulinella
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Membrane-bound organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
A later primary endosymbiosis event occurred in photosynthetic Paulinella amoeboids about 90–140 million years ago.
Type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.
With one exception (the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora), all chloroplasts can probably be traced back to a single endosymbiotic event, when a cyanobacterium was engulfed by the eukaryote.
Leading evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms.
Using the example of the freshwater amoeboid, however, Paulinella chromatophora, which contains chromatophores found to be evolved from cyanobacteria, Keeling and Archibald argue that this is not the only possible criterion; another is that the host cell has assumed control of the regulation of the former endosymbiont's division, thereby synchronizing it with the cell's own division.
The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato "in a broad sense"; pronounced /ɑːrkɪ'plastɪdə/) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the photoautotrophic red algae (Rhodophyta), green algae, land plants, and the minor group glaucophytes.
All other groups which have chloroplasts, besides the amoeboid genus Paulinella, have chloroplasts surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae.
Any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism most often, though not always, in a mutualistic relationship.
Paulinella chromatophora is a freshwater amoeboid which has recently (evolutionarily speaking) taken on a cyanobacterium as an endosymbiont.
Process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities.
The chlorarachniophytes and 3 species of Paulinella in the phylum Cercozoa—clade Rhizaria (unicellular)
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of Gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy via photosynthesis.
The description of another independent and more recent primary endosymbiosis event between a cyanobacterium and a separate eukaryote lineage (the rhizarian Paulinella chromatophora) also gives credibility to the endosymbiotic origin of the plastids.
Genome of a plastid, a type of organelle found in plants and in a variety of protoctists.
The unicellular eukaryote Paulinella chromatophora possesses an organelle (the cyanelle) which represents an independent case of the acquisition of photosynthesis by cyanobacterial endosymbiosis.
Grouping of Cercozoa.
It has also been described as Sarcomonadea (Cercomonas, Heteromita, Bodomorpha, Proleptomonas, Allantion), Thecofilosea (Cryptodifflugia, Cryothecomonas), Spongomonadea (Spongomonas, Rhipidodendron), and Imbricatea (Thaumatomonas, Thaumatomastix, Allas, Gyromitus, Euglypha, Trinema, Paulinella).
Any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.
For example, Paramecium bursaria and Paulinella have captured a green alga (Zoochlorella) and a cyanobacterium respectively that act as replacements for chloroplast.