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Treaty of Paris (1783)

Treaty of Paris1783 Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris of 1783
On 3 September 1783, representatives of King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of America—commonly known as the Treaty of Paris (1783)—and two treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and King Charles III of Spain—commonly known as the Treaties of Versailles (1783).
This treaty and the separate peace treaties between Great Britain and the nations that supported the American cause—France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic—are known collectively as the Peace of Paris.

Palace of Versailles

VersaillesChâteau de VersaillesChateau de Versailles
On 3 September 1783, representatives of King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of America—commonly known as the Treaty of Paris (1783)—and two treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and King Charles III of Spain—commonly known as the Treaties of Versailles (1783).
In 1783, the Palace was the site of the signing of three treaties of the Peace of Paris (1783), in which the United Kingdom recognized the independence of the United States.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The British lost their Thirteen Colonies and the defeat marked the end of the First British Empire.
American independence was acknowledged at the Peace of Paris in 1783.

Richard Oswald (merchant)

Richard OswaldOswald
The British negotiator sent to Paris was Richard Oswald, an old slave-trading partner of Henry Laurens, who had been one of his visitors in the Tower of London.
He is best known as the British peace commissioner who in 1782 negotiated the Peace of Paris.

William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne

Lord ShelburneEarl of ShelburneThe Earl of Shelburne
The King's choice as replacement, Lord Shelburne (who, though an old friend of Benjamin Franklin, had initially stated in February that he "would never consent, under any possible given circumstances, to acknowledge the independency of America") refused the post, leading to the formation of a strange new government team, nominally led by Lord Rockingham, whom the King hated, with Shelburne and Charles James Fox, who hated each other, as Secretaries of State.
Shelburne's government was brought down largely due to the terms of the Peace of Paris which brought the conflict to an end.

Second Rockingham ministry

Rockingham IIRockingham ministrychange of Government
The King's choice as replacement, Lord Shelburne (who, though an old friend of Benjamin Franklin, had initially stated in February that he "would never consent, under any possible given circumstances, to acknowledge the independency of America") refused the post, leading to the formation of a strange new government team, nominally led by Lord Rockingham, whom the King hated, with Shelburne and Charles James Fox, who hated each other, as Secretaries of State.
The Rockingham Whigs had generally been sympathetic to the cause of the Colonists and under Rockingham the British government began the negotiations leading to the Peace of Paris that concluded the war.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties that ended the American Revolutionary War.
On 30 June, news arrived of a preliminary peace between the belligerent powers, and the siege was effectively over when the French abandoned the siege.

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIGeorge III of Great Britain
On 3 September 1783, representatives of King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of America—commonly known as the Treaty of Paris (1783)—and two treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and King Charles III of Spain—commonly known as the Treaties of Versailles (1783).
The Treaties of Paris, by which Britain recognised the independence of the American states and returned Florida to Spain, were signed in 1782 and 1783.

Charles III of Spain

Charles IIICarlos IIIKing Carlos III
On 3 September 1783, representatives of King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of America—commonly known as the Treaty of Paris (1783)—and two treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and King Charles III of Spain—commonly known as the Treaties of Versailles (1783).
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 confirmed the recovery of the Floridas and Menorca, and restricted the actions of British commercial interests in Central America.

Spain and the American Revolutionary War

Anglo-Spanish WarAmerican Revolutionary WarSpain
On 3 September 1783, representatives of King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of America—commonly known as the Treaty of Paris (1783)—and two treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and King Charles III of Spain—commonly known as the Treaties of Versailles (1783).
As a result, Spain retained Menorca and West Florida in the Treaty of Paris and also regained East Florida.

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

Fourth Anglo–Dutch War4th Anglo-Dutch Warat war
The previous day, a preliminary treaty had been signed with representatives of the States General of the Dutch Republic, but the final treaty which ended the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War was not signed until 20 May 1784; for convenience, however, it is included in the summaries below.
The signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783-1784) made Negapatnam, in India, a British colony.

Battle of the Saintes

the SaintesThe SaintsSaintes
On 18 May, the decision to keep full independence as a point for negotiation was vindicated by the arrival in Europe of news that, over a month previously, Admiral Rodney had gained the victory over the French in the Caribbean which he and Britain so desperately needed, capturing the French Admiral de Grasse.
Initial articles of peace were signed in July, with a full treaty following in September 1783.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
The British lost their Thirteen Colonies and the defeat marked the end of the First British Empire.
However, Spain seized Pensacola in West Florida in 1781, then recovered both territories in the Treaty of Paris that ended the war in 1783.

François Joseph Paul de Grasse

Comte de Grassede GrasseAdmiral de Grasse
On 18 May, the decision to keep full independence as a point for negotiation was vindicated by the arrival in Europe of news that, over a month previously, Admiral Rodney had gained the victory over the French in the Caribbean which he and Britain so desperately needed, capturing the French Admiral de Grasse.
While there, he briefly took part in the negotiations that laid the foundations for the Peace of Paris (1783), which brought the American Revolutionary War to an end.

Nagapattinam

NegapatamNagapatnamNegapatnam
Britain agreed to return nearly all Dutch possessions captured in the East Indies (the most important of which, Trincomalee on Ceylon, had already been retaken by the French anyway) but kept Negapatnam on the Indian coast.
When the Dutch and British reached a peace agreement in 1784, Nagapattinam was formally ceded to the British.

Battle of Ushant (1781)

Second Battle of UshantBattle of UshantUshant
The budget was passed by a large majority, but a few days later news was received that the British fleet in the Bay of Biscay had been able to capture only a fraction of a very large French fleet, carrying troops for invasions of British colonies around the world.
This was the first of a succession of Opposition challenges which would ultimately bring about the fall of the government of Lord North on 20 March 1782 and pave the way for the Peace of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolutionary War.

Siege of Yorktown

YorktownBattle of Yorktownsurrender at Yorktown
News of the surrender of General Cornwallis at Yorktown reached Britain late in November 1781, shortly before Parliament was due to debate the military spending estimates for the following year.

George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville

Lord George SackvilleLord George GermainGeorge Germain
Also in that month, the government appointed a new commander for the American forces, General Carleton who had defeated the American invasion of Canada in the early phase of the war, and the Colonial Secretary, Lord George Germain, was replaced by the hawkish Welbore Ellis.
The Shelburne government agreed to the Peace of Paris, bringing an end to the war in 1783 and recognising the independence of the United States.

Grenada

GrenadianGRDTheophilus A. Marryshow
However the island was restored to Britain with the Treaty of Versailles in 1783.

Alleyne FitzHerbert, 1st Baron St Helens

Alleyne FitzherbertLord St HelensThe Lord St Helens
Over the next few weeks, serious negotiations began between Britain, France and Spain (for which Britain's chief negotiator was Alleyne Fitzherbert, and Spain's the Count of Aranda).
He remained at Brussels until August 1782, when he was despatched to Paris by Lord Shelburne as plenipotentiary to negotiate a peace with the crowns of France and Spain, and with the States General of the United Provinces ; and on 20 January 1783 the preliminaries of peace with the first two powers were duly signed.

The Gambia

GambiaGambianRepublic of the Gambia
The 1783 First Treaty of Versailles gave Great Britain possession of the Gambia River, but the French retained a tiny enclave at Albreda on the river's north bank.

Gerard Brantsen

Signed at Paris, 20 May 1784, by Daniel Hailes; Lestevenon van Berkenroode and Gerard Brantsen.
He was one of the Dutch signatories to the treaty ending the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War in 1784.

Bernardo de Gálvez, 1st Viscount of Galveston

Bernardo de GálvezBernardo de GalvezBernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez
Although France was an ally of both the United States and Spain, Spain was not an ally of the United States, though an informal alliance had existed since at least 1776 between the Americans and Bernardo de Gálvez, Spanish governor of Louisiana, one of the most successful leaders in the war.
Gálvez found it convenient for France and Spain to advance the cause of the American revolutionaries; his military success led to the inclusion of provisions in the Peace of Paris (1783) that officially returned Florida, now divided into two provinces, East and West Florida, to Spain.

Daniel Hailes

Signed at Paris, 20 May 1784, by Daniel Hailes; Lestevenon van Berkenroode and Gerard Brantsen.
He was the British signatory to the Anglo-Dutch treaty ending the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War in 1783, before serving as a secretary to British embassy in France in 1784-1787, envoy to Poland in 1788-1791, envoy extraordinary to Denmark from 1791, envoy extraordinary to Sweden from 1795.

George Montagu, 4th Duke of Manchester

Viscount MandevilleThe Duke of ManchesterDuke of Manchester
Signed at Versailles, 3 September 1783, by George Montagu, 4th Duke of Manchester and Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes.
Manchester signed the Peace of Paris (1783) for Great Britain to end the American Revolutionary War.