A report on Peat

A lump of peat
Peat stacks in Südmoslesfehn (district of Oldenburg, Germany) in 2013
Peat gatherers at Westhay, Somerset Levels in 1905
Peat extraction in East Frisia, Germany
Peat in Lewis, Scotland
PEATMAP is a GIS shapefile dataset that shows a distribution of peatlands that covers the entire world
A peat stack in Ness on the Isle of Lewis (Scotland)
Worked bank in blanket bog, near Ulsta, Yell, Shetland Islands
Falkland Islanders shovelling peat in the 1950s
Peat fire
The Toppila Power Station, a peat-fired facility in Oulu, Finland
Industrial-milled peat production in a section of the Bog of Allen in the Irish Midlands: The 'turf' in the foreground is machine-produced for domestic use.
Shatura Power Station. Russia has the largest peat power capacity in the world
The Bor Peat Briquette Factory, Russia
Peat covered area (brown) 2,500 years ago in the Netherlands
The Netherlands compared to sealevel
Peat hags at the start of Allt Lagan a' Bhainne tributary on Eilrig
Increase, and change relative to previous year, of the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.
Smoke and ozone pollution from Indonesian fires, 1997

Accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter.

- Peat
A lump of peat

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A bog in Lauhanvuori National Park, Isojoki, Finland.

Bog

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A bog in Lauhanvuori National Park, Isojoki, Finland.
Precipitation accumulates in many bogs, forming bog pools, such as Koitjärve bog in Estonia.
A raised bog in Ķemeri National Park, Jūrmala, Latvia, formed approximately 10,000 years ago in the postglacial period and now a tourist attraction.
Carnivorous plants, such as this Sarracenia purpurea pitcher plant of the eastern seaboard of North America, are often found in bogs. Capturing insects provides nitrogen and phosphorus, which are usually scarce in such conditions.
An expanse of wet Sphagnum bog in Frontenac National Park, Quebec, Canada. Spruce trees can be seen on a forested ridge in the background.
Many species of evergreen shrub are found in bogs, such as Labrador tea.
Aerial image of Carbajal Valley peat bogs, Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina.
Viru Bog in Lahemaa National Park, Estonia, which is rich in raised bogs.
Sphagnum moss and sedges can produce floating bog mats along the shores of small lakes. This bog in Duck Lake, Oregon also supports a carnivorous plant, sundew.
Blanket bog in Connemara, Ireland
Ķemeri National Park Bog in Jūrmala, Latvia, with a boardwalk path visible
Sitniki peat bog in Russia recultivated after industrial use.
Sphagnum with northern pitcher plants at Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio.
Bog, Ostfriesland
Bog-wood and boulders at the Stumpy Knowe near South Auchenmade, Ayrshire, Scotland.
Bog with October morning mist in Mukri, Estonia

A bog or bogland is a wetland that accumulates peat as a deposit of dead plant materials often mosses, typically sphagnum moss.

Marshes develop along the edges of rivers and lakes.

Wetland

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Distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally (for weeks or months).

Distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally (for weeks or months).

Marshes develop along the edges of rivers and lakes.
Sunrise at Viru Bog, Estonia
Wetlands contrast the hot, arid landscape around Middle Spring, Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah
Bud of Nelumbo nucifera, an aquatic plant.
Many species of frogs live in wetlands, while others visit them each year to lay eggs.
Snapping turtles are one of the many kinds of turtles found in wetlands.
Wetland at the Broadmoor Wildlife Sanctuary in Massachuesetts, United States, in February
Fog rising over the Mukri bog near Mukri, Estonia. The bog has an area of 2147 ha and has been protected since 1992.
Humid wetlands in Pennsylvania before a rain.

When peat accumulates, bogs and fens arise.

A variety of mire types in Carbajal Valley, Argentina.

Mire

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A variety of mire types in Carbajal Valley, Argentina.
A valley mire creates a level ground surface in otherwise dramatic topography. Upper Bigo Bog, Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda.
Satellite image of burning tropical peat swamp, Borneo. In 1997 alone, 73000 ha of swamp was burned in Borneo, releasing the same amount of carbon as 13-40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions of fossil fuels. The majority of this carbon was released from peat rather than overlying tropical rainforest.
Wooded bog in Lahemaa National Park, Estonia. 65% of mires in Estonia have been strongly affected or damaged by human activity in recent years.
Extraction of peat from derelict blanket bog, South Uist, Scotland. This old bog is no longer forming peat because the vegetation has been changed, and therefore it is not a mire.

A mire, peatland, or quagmire is a wetland area dominated by living peat-forming plants.

Sphagnum

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Sphagnum cells
Red sphagnum closeup
Sphagnum with northern pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) at Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio
Peat moss soil amendment, made of partly decayed, dried sphagnum moss
Sphagnum moss wound dressings being made at the University of Toronto c. 1914
Long strand Sphagnum moss used in mounting a Vanda Falcata orchid
Mer Bleue Conservation Area, a large, protected Sphagnum bog near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Sphagnum is a genus of approximately 380 accepted species of mosses, commonly known as sphagnum moss, peat moss, also bog moss and quacker moss (although that term is also sometimes used for peat).

Avaste Fen, Estonia. Sedges dominate the landscape, woody shrubs and trees are sparse.

Fen

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Avaste Fen, Estonia. Sedges dominate the landscape, woody shrubs and trees are sparse.
Wicken Fen, England. Grasses in the foreground are typical of a fen.
Spaulding Fen, Wisconsin.
Small extreme rich fen in southwestern Minnesota. The white flowers, Parnassia glauca, are a fen indicator species in Minnesota.
Kakerdaja Fen, Estonia
Dernford Fen, Cambridgeshire
Sugar Fen, Norfolk

A fen is a type of peat-accumulating wetland fed by mineral-rich ground or surface water.

Extensive moorland in the Desert of Wales

Moorland

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Type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils.

Type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils.

Extensive moorland in the Desert of Wales
Heather moorland on the North York Moors mainly consisting of Calluna vulgaris
Moorland of Kilimanjaro
Oswaldtwistle Moor, part of the West Pennine Moors, in Lancashire, UK

The eastern British moorlands are similar to heaths but are differentiated by having a covering of peat.

Lignite mining, western North Dakota, US (c. 1945)

Lignite

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Lignite mining, western North Dakota, US (c. 1945)
Strip mining lignite at Tagebau Garzweiler in Germany
Layer of lignite for mining in Lom ČSA, Czech Republic
Okefenokee Swamp, a modern peat-forming swamp
Partial molecular structure of a lignin-derived organic molecule in lignite
Open-pit United Schleenhain coal mine in Saxony, Germany

Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

Poplar growing on muskeg

Muskeg

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Poplar growing on muskeg
Heavy equipment breaking through thawing muskeg in Wabasca oil field, Alberta.
Stunted shore pine growing on muskeg in Wrangell, Alaska.
Tracked excavator placing corduroy on muskeg near Rocky Mountain House, Alberta
Caterpillar D300E hauling on a corduroy road built over muskeg

Muskeg (Ojibwe: mashkiig; maskīk; fondrière de mousse, lit. moss bog) is a peat-forming ecosystem found in several northern climates, most commonly in Arctic and boreal areas.

Tollund Man, Denmark, 4th c. BCE

Bog body

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Human cadaver that has been naturally mummified in a peat bog.

Human cadaver that has been naturally mummified in a peat bog.

Tollund Man, Denmark, 4th c. BCE
Gallagh Man, Ireland, c. 470–120 BCE
Discoveries such as Röst Girl no longer exist, having been destroyed during the Second World War.
Windeby I, the body of a teenage boy, found in Schleswig, Germany
Rendswühren Man, Germany,
1903 excavation of the Kreepen Man
Remains from Levänluhta (Isokyrö, Ostrobothnia) at the National Museum of Finland
Reconstruction of the Girl of the Uchter Moor

For example, in the area of Denmark where the Haraldskær Woman was recovered, salty air from the North Sea blows across the Jutland wetlands and provides an ideal environment for the growth of peat.

Coal

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Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams.

Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams.

Example chemical structure of coal
Coastal exposure of the Point Aconi Seam in Nova Scotia
Coal ranking system used by the United States Geological Survey
Chinese coal miners in an illustration of the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia, published in 1637
Coal miner in Britain, 1942
Coke oven at a smokeless fuel plant in Wales, United Kingdom
Production of chemicals from coal
Castle Gate Power Plant near Helper, Utah, US
Coal rail cars
Bulldozer pushing coal in Ljubljana Power Station, Slovenia
Extensive coal docks seen in Toledo, Ohio, 1895
Coal production by region
Aerial photograph of the site of the Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill taken the day after the event
Protesting damage to the Great Barrier Reef caused by climate change in Australia
Tree houses for protesting the felling of part of Hambach Forest for the Hambach surface mine in Germany: after which the felling was suspended in 2018
A coal mine in Wyoming, United States. The United States has the world's largest coal reserves.

Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years.