Pectus carinatum

protrudingprotruding sternumprotrusion
Pectus carinatum, also called pigeon chest, is a malformation of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs.wikipedia
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Pectus excavatum

funnel chestchest indentabnormal indentation
It is distinct from the related malformation pectus excavatum.
Pectus carinatum is excluded by the simple observation of a collapsing of the sternum rather than a protrusion.

Scoliosis

curvature of the spinethoracoplastyidiopathic scoliosis
Some children with pectus carinatum also have scoliosis (i.e., curvature of the spine). However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.
Scoliosis can be associated with amniotic band syndrome, Arnold–Chiari malformation, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, cerebral palsy, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, connective tissue disorders, muscular dystrophy, familial dysautonomia, CHARGE syndrome, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (hyperflexibility, "floppy baby" syndrome, and other variants of the condition), fragile X syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, hemihypertrophy, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, nail–patella syndrome, neurofibromatosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Prader–Willi syndrome, proteus syndrome, spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, syringomyelia, and pectus carinatum.

Noonan syndrome

Noonan's syndromeNoonan
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.
The breast bone may be either protruding or be sunken, while the spine may be abnormally curved.

Rib cage

ribsribcagefirst rib
Pectus carinatum, also called pigeon chest, is a malformation of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs.
Abnormalities of the rib cage include pectus excavatum ("sunken chest") and pectus carinatum ("pigeon chest").

Marfan syndrome

Marfan's syndromeMarfanMarfanoid
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.
Besides affecting height and limb proportions, people with Marfan syndrome may have abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (scoliosis), thoracic lordosis, abnormal indentation (pectus excavatum) or protrusion (pectus carinatum) of the sternum, abnormal joint flexibility, a high-arched palate with crowded teeth and an overbite, flat feet, hammer toes, stooped shoulders, and unexplained stretch marks on the skin.

Sternum

manubriumbreastbonesternal
Pectus carinatum, also called pigeon chest, is a malformation of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs. A less common variant of pectus carinatum is pectus arcuatum (also called type 2 pectus excavatum, chondromanubrial malformation or Currarino–Silverman syndrome or pouter pigeon malformation), which produces a manubrial and upper sternal protrusion, particularly also at the sternal angle.

Sydney Haje

The use of orthotic bracing, pioneered by Sydney Haje as of 1977, is finding increasing acceptance as an alternative to surgery in select cases of pectus carinatum.
Sydney A. Haje (16 February 1952 – 26 June 2012) was a Brazilian orthopedist, known internationally for his pioneering work on chest wall deformities including the creation of a conservative treatment protocol for the pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum conditions.

Loeys–Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndromeLoeys-DietzLoeys-Deitz aortic aneurysm syndrome
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

LEOPARD syndromeMoynahan syndromeMultiple lentigines syndrome
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.
Zeisler and Becker first described a syndrome with multiple lentigines, hypertelorism, pectus carinatum (protruding breastbone) and prognathism (protrusion of lower jaw) in 1936.

Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
Commonly concurrent is mild to moderate asthma. Least common is a pectus carinatum malformation following open-heart surgery or in children with poorly controlled bronchial asthma.

Mitral valve prolapse

Barlow's syndromemitral valve prolapse syndromeprolapse
Some have mitral valve prolapse, a condition in which the heart mitral valve functions abnormally.

Sternal angle

Angle of LouisManubriosternal jointsternal angle of Louis
A less common variant of pectus carinatum is pectus arcuatum (also called type 2 pectus excavatum, chondromanubrial malformation or Currarino–Silverman syndrome or pouter pigeon malformation), which produces a manubrial and upper sternal protrusion, particularly also at the sternal angle.

Costal cartilage

costal cartilagesrib cartilageanterior costal cartilage grafts
Pectus carinatum is an overgrowth of costal cartilage causing the sternum to protrude forward.

Adolescence

adolescentteenagerteenage
Most commonly, pectus carinatum develops in 11-to-14-year-old pubertal males undergoing a growth spurt.

Vitamin D deficiency

hypovitaminosis Dvitamin Ddeficiency of vitamin D
Pectus carinatum can also be caused by vitamin D deficiency in children (Rickets) due to deposition of unmineralized osteoid.

Rickets

rachitisrachiticantirachitic
Pectus carinatum can also be caused by vitamin D deficiency in children (Rickets) due to deposition of unmineralized osteoid.

Osteoid

osteoid matrix
Pectus carinatum can also be caused by vitamin D deficiency in children (Rickets) due to deposition of unmineralized osteoid.

Cardiac surgery

open heart surgeryheart surgeryopen-heart surgery
Least common is a pectus carinatum malformation following open-heart surgery or in children with poorly controlled bronchial asthma.

Turner syndrome

Turner's syndrome45,Xmonosomy X
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Ehlers–Danlos syndromes

Ehlers-Danlos syndromeEhlers–Danlos syndromeEhlers Danlos Syndrome
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Morquio syndrome

mucopolysaccharidosis IVMorquio A SyndromeMorquio disease
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Edwards syndrome

trisomy 18Edward's syndromeEdwards' syndrome
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Down syndrome

Down's syndrometrisomy 21Downs Syndrome
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Homocystinuria

HomocysteinuriaCystathionine beta synthase deficiencyCystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Osteogenesis imperfecta

brittle bone diseasebrittle bonesCole carpenter syndrome
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.