A report on Peer-to-peer

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes ("peers") share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system
A network based on the client–server model, where individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
SETI@home was established in 1999
Overlay network diagram for an unstructured P2P network, illustrating the ad hoc nature of the connections between nodes
Overlay network diagram for a structured P2P network, using a distributed hash table (DHT) to identify and locate nodes/resources
Distributed hash tables
Search results for the query "software libre", using YaCy a free distributed search engine that runs on a peer-to-peer network instead making requests to centralized index servers (like Google, Yahoo, and other corporate search engines)
Torrent file connect peers
The BitTorrent protocol: In this animation, the colored bars beneath all of the 7 clients in the upper region above represent the file being shared, with each color representing an individual piece of the file. After the initial pieces transfer from the seed (large system at the bottom), the pieces are individually transferred from client to client. The original seeder only needs to send out one copy of the file for all the clients to receive a copy.

Distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

- Peer-to-peer
A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes ("peers") share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system

62 related topics with Alpha

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Distributed hash tables

Distributed hash table

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Distributed system that provides a lookup service similar to a hash table: key–value pairs are stored in a DHT, and any participating node can efficiently retrieve the value associated with a given key.

Distributed system that provides a lookup service similar to a hash table: key–value pairs are stored in a DHT, and any participating node can efficiently retrieve the value associated with a given key.

Distributed hash tables

DHT research was originally motivated, in part, by peer-to-peer (P2P) systems such as Freenet, Gnutella, BitTorrent and Napster, which took advantage of resources distributed across the Internet to provide a single useful application.

Figure 1: A sample overlay network

Overlay network

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Computer network that is layered on top of another network.

Computer network that is layered on top of another network.

Figure 1: A sample overlay network
Figure 2: Overlay network broken up into logical layers

For example, distributed systems such as peer-to-peer networks and client–server applications are overlay networks because their nodes run on top of the Internet.

Demonstrators protesting The Pirate Bay raid in 2006

File sharing

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Practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia , documents or electronic books.

Practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia , documents or electronic books.

Demonstrators protesting The Pirate Bay raid in 2006
Screenshot of an open-source file-sharing software Shareaza

Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, Internet-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking.

Network partition for node 110

Kademlia

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Network partition for node 110

Kademlia is a distributed hash table for decentralized peer-to-peer computer networks designed by Petar Maymounkov and David Mazières in 2002.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

Internet

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Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks.

Application layer

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Abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.

Abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.

The application layer only standardizes communication and depends upon the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host data transfer channels and manage the data exchange in a client–server or peer-to-peer networking model.

I2P 0.9.31-0 router console

I2P

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I2P 0.9.31-0 router console
A screenshot of the inbox of I2P-Bote.
I2P running on Android.
I2P's mascot, itoopie, who is looking through a magnifying glass.
David Dagon presenting at the first I2Pcon.

The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer (implemented as a mix network) that allows for censorship-resistant, peer-to-peer communication.

(a), (b): a distributed system. (c): a parallel system.

Distributed computing

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Field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

Field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

(a), (b): a distributed system. (c): a parallel system.

Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications.

The gnutella search and retrieval protocol

Gnutella

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The gnutella search and retrieval protocol

Gnutella is a peer-to-peer network protocol.

Kad network

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The Kad network is a peer-to-peer (P2P) network which implements the Kademlia P2P overlay protocol.