Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer networkpeer-to-peer networkspeerspeer-to-peer networkingP2P networksP2P networkpeerPeer-to-Peer (P2P)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.wikipedia
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Social peer-to-peer processes

peer-to-peerPeer-to-Peer economypeer-to-peer production
In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.
Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic.

Distributed computing

distributeddistributed systemsdistributed system
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications.

File sharing

file-sharingfilesharingsharing
While P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, the concept was popularized by file sharing systems such as the music-sharing application Napster (originally released in 1999).
Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking.

Usenet

newsnetnewsnewsgroup
Therefore, USENET, a distributed messaging system that is often described as an early peer-to-peer architecture, was established.
The later peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is normally the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers.

Gnutella

gnutella-svcGnutella1GWCs
(Gnutella, Gossip, and Kazaa are examples of unstructured P2P protocols). Many file peer-to-peer file sharing networks, such as Gnutella, G2, and the eDonkey network popularized peer-to-peer technologies.
Gnutella (possibly by analogy with the GNU Project) is a large peer-to-peer network.

Overlay network

overlaynetwork overlayoverlaid network
Peer-to-peer networks generally implement some form of virtual overlay network on top of the physical network topology, where the nodes in the overlay form a subset of the nodes in the physical network.
For example, distributed systems such as peer-to-peer networks and client-server applications are overlay networks because their nodes run on top of the Internet.

Application layer

Applicationapplication protocolapplication-layer
Data is still exchanged directly over the underlying TCP/IP network, but at the application layer peers are able to communicate with each other directly, via the logical overlay links (each of which corresponds to a path through the underlying physical network).
The application layer only standardizes communication and depends upon the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host data transfer channels and manage the data exchange in a client-server or peer-to-peer networking model.

Kad network

KadKad DHT
Notable distributed networks that use DHTs include BitTorrent's distributed tracker, the Kad network, the Storm botnet, YaCy, and the Coral Content Distribution Network.
The Kad network is a peer-to-peer (P2P) network which implements the Kademlia P2P overlay protocol.

Distributed hash table

DHTdistributeddistributed hash tables
The most common type of structured P2P networks implement a distributed hash table (DHT), in which a variant of consistent hashing is used to assign ownership of each file to a particular peer.
DHTs form an infrastructure that can be used to build more complex services, such as anycast, cooperative Web caching, distributed file systems, domain name services, instant messaging, multicast, and also peer-to-peer file sharing and content distribution systems.

Kademlia

accelerated lookups
Some prominent research projects include the Chord project, Kademlia, PAST storage utility, P-Grid, a self-organized and emerging overlay network, and CoopNet content distribution system.
Kademlia is a distributed hash table for decentralized peer-to-peer computer networks designed by Petar Maymounkov and David Mazières in 2002.

Coral Content Distribution Network

CoralCoral CDNdistributed sloppy hash table
Notable distributed networks that use DHTs include BitTorrent's distributed tracker, the Kad network, the Storm botnet, YaCy, and the Coral Content Distribution Network.
The Coral Content Distribution Network, sometimes called Coral Cache or Coral, was a free peer-to-peer content distribution network that ran from 2004 until 2015.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.
For example, a web browser program uses the client-server application model and a specific protocol of interaction between servers and clients, while many file-sharing systems use a peer-to-peer paradigm.

YaCy

Notable distributed networks that use DHTs include BitTorrent's distributed tracker, the Kad network, the Storm botnet, YaCy, and the Coral Content Distribution Network.
YaCy (pronounced "ya see") is a free distributed search engine, built on principles of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks.

Chord (peer-to-peer)

ChordChord ProjectChord DHT
Some prominent research projects include the Chord project, Kademlia, PAST storage utility, P-Grid, a self-organized and emerging overlay network, and CoopNet content distribution system.
In computing, Chord is a protocol and algorithm for a peer-to-peer distributed hash table.

CoopNet content distribution system

Some prominent research projects include the Chord project, Kademlia, PAST storage utility, P-Grid, a self-organized and emerging overlay network, and CoopNet content distribution system.
CoopNet (Cooperative Networking), a system for off-loading serving to peers who have recently downloaded content, is described in the paper “The Case for Cooperative Networking”, presented at the First International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS) in 2002.

FastTrack

FastTrack protocol
For example, on the FastTrack network, the RIAA managed to introduce faked chunks into downloads and downloaded files (mostly MP3 files).
FastTrack is a peer-to-peer (P2P) protocol that was used by the Kazaa, Grokster, iMesh, and Morpheus file sharing programs.

Gnutella2

G2
Many file peer-to-peer file sharing networks, such as Gnutella, G2, and the eDonkey network popularized peer-to-peer technologies.
Gnutella2, often referred to as G2, is a peer-to-peer protocol developed mainly by Michael Stokes and released in 2002.

Peer-to-peer file sharing

P2Ppeer-to-peer filesharingpeer-to-peer
Many file peer-to-peer file sharing networks, such as Gnutella, G2, and the eDonkey network popularized peer-to-peer technologies.
Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology.

Internet protocol suite

TCP/IPInternet protocolsIP
Data is still exchanged directly over the underlying TCP/IP network, but at the application layer peers are able to communicate with each other directly, via the logical overlay links (each of which corresponds to a path through the underlying physical network).
The application layer is the scope within which applications create user data and communicate this data to other applications on another or the same host. The applications, or processes, make use of the services provided by the underlying, lower layers, especially the Transport Layer which provides reliable or unreliable pipes to other processes. The communications partners are characterized by the application architecture, such as the client-server model and peer-to-peer networking. This is the layer in which all higher level protocols, such as SMTP, FTP, SSH, HTTP, operate. Processes are addressed via ports which essentially represent services.

EDonkey network

eDonkeyeD2keDonkey2000 network
Many file peer-to-peer file sharing networks, such as Gnutella, G2, and the eDonkey network popularized peer-to-peer technologies.
The eDonkey Network (also known as the eDonkey2000 network or eD2k) is a decentralized, mostly server-based, peer-to-peer file sharing network created in 2000 by US developers Jed McCaleb and Sam Yagan that is best suited to share big files among users, and to provide long term availability of files.

Decentralized computing

decentralizeddecentralisedAutonomy and decentralization
It was developed in 1979 as a system that enforces a decentralized model of control.
Based on a "grid model" a peer-to-peer system, or P2P system, is a collection of applications run on several local computers, which connect remotely to each other to complete a function or a task.

P2PTV

Internet TelevisionP2P streamingpeer-to-peer TV technology
The P2PTV and PDTP protocols.
P2PTV refers to peer-to-peer (P2P) software applications designed to redistribute video streams in real time on a P2P network; the distributed video streams are typically TV channels from all over the world but may also come from other sources.

Storm botnet

Storm
Notable distributed networks that use DHTs include BitTorrent's distributed tracker, the Kad network, the Storm botnet, YaCy, and the Coral Content Distribution Network.
The Storm botnet's operators control the system via peer-to-peer techniques, making external monitoring and disabling of the system more difficult.

MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd.

MGM v. GroksterGroksterMGM Studios v. Grokster
Two major cases are Grokster vs RIAA and MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd..
MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., 545 U.S. 913 (2005), is a United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court unanimously held that defendant peer-to-peer file sharing companies Grokster and Streamcast (maker of Morpheus) could be sued for inducing copyright infringement for acts taken in the course of marketing file sharing software.

Bitcoin

bitcoinsbitcoin walletBitcoin blockchain
Bitcoin and alternatives such as Ether, Nxt and Peercoin are peer-to-peer-based digital cryptocurrencies.
It is a decentralized digital currency without a central bank or single administrator that can be sent from user-to-user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries.