Pendulum clock

regulator clockClock pendulumregulatorregulatorsastronomical regulatorclock weightsclock's pendulumclockmakerspendulumpendulum-regulated
A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element.wikipedia
175 Related Articles

Clock

clockstimepiecemechanical clock
A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element.
The next development in accuracy occurred after 1656 with the invention of the pendulum clock.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensHuygens, ChristiaanChristiaan
From its invention in 1656 by Christiaan Huygens until the 1930s, the pendulum clock was the world's most precise timekeeper, accounting for its widespread use.
His most famous invention, however, was the invention of the pendulum clock in 1656, which was a breakthrough in timekeeping and became the most accurate timekeeper for almost 300 years.

Anchor escapement

deadbeat escapementdeadbeatpocket watch
Clockmakers' realization that only pendulums with small swings of a few degrees are isochronous motivated the invention of the anchor escapement around 1670, which reduced the pendulum's swing to 4–6°. The deadbeat escapement invented in 1675 by Richard Towneley and popularized by George Graham around 1715 in his precision "regulator" clocks gradually replaced the anchor escapement and is now used in most modern pendulum clocks.
In horology, the anchor escapement is a type of escapement used in pendulum clocks.

Salomon Coster

Huygens contracted the construction of his clock designs to clockmaker Salomon Coster, who actually built the clock.
Salomon Coster (c. 1620–1659) was a Dutch clockmaker of the Hague, who in 1657 was the first to make a pendulum clock, which had been invented by Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695).

Pendulum

pendulumssimple pendulumpendula
A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element. This was solved by the invention of temperature-compensated pendulums; the mercury pendulum by George Graham in 1721 and the gridiron pendulum by John Harrison in 1726.
The pendulum clock invented by Christian Huygens in 1658 became the world's standard timekeeper, used in homes and offices for 270 years, and achieved accuracy of about one second per year before it was superseded as a time standard by the quartz clock in the 1930s.

George Graham (clockmaker)

George GrahamGraham
The deadbeat escapement invented in 1675 by Richard Towneley and popularized by George Graham around 1715 in his precision "regulator" clocks gradually replaced the anchor escapement and is now used in most modern pendulum clocks. This was solved by the invention of temperature-compensated pendulums; the mercury pendulum by George Graham in 1721 and the gridiron pendulum by John Harrison in 1726.
Graham is credited with inventing several design improvements to the pendulum clock, inventing the mercury pendulum and also the orrery.

Riefler escapement

RieflerRiefler regulator clock
From 1909, US National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) based the US time standard on Riefler pendulum clocks, accurate to about 10 milliseconds per day.
The Riefler escapement is a mechanical escapement for precision pendulum clocks invented and patented by German instrument maker Sigmund Riefler in 1889.

Shortt–Synchronome clock

Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clockclocksfree-pendulum clock
In 1929 it switched to the Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clock before phasing in quartz standards in the 1930s.
The Shortt–Synchronome free pendulum clock was a complex precision electromechanical pendulum clock invented in 1921 by British railway engineer William Hamilton Shortt in collaboration with horologist Frank Hope-Jones, and manufactured by the Synchronome Co., Ltd. of London, UK.

Movement (clockwork)

movementmovementswatch movement
In his 1673 analysis of pendulums, Horologium Oscillatorium, Huygens showed that wide swings made the pendulum inaccurate, causing its period, and thus the rate of the clock, to vary with unavoidable variations in the driving force provided by the movement.
A mechanical movement contains all the moving parts of a watch or clock except the hands, and in the case of pendulum clocks, the pendulum and driving weights.

Quartz clock

quartz watchquartzquartz movement
In 1929 it switched to the Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clock before phasing in quartz standards in the 1930s.
Later, scientists at NIST (then the U.S. National Bureau of Standards) discovered that a crystal oscillator could be more accurate than a pendulum clock.

Marine chronometer

chronometerchronometersmarine chronometers
These precision instruments, installed in naval observatories and kept accurate within a second by observation of star transits overhead, were used to set marine chronometers on naval and commercial vessels.
Until the 20th century, the best timekeepers were pendulum clocks, but both the rolling of a ship at sea and the up to 0.2% variations in the gravity of Earth made a simple gravity-based pendulum useless both in theory and in practice.

Verge escapement

verge and foliotfoliotcrown wheel and verge escapement
The introduction of the pendulum, the first harmonic oscillator used in timekeeping, increased the accuracy of clocks enormously, from about 15 minutes per day to 15 seconds per day leading to their rapid spread as existing 'verge and foliot' clocks were retrofitted with pendulums.
The verge was only used briefly in pendulum clocks before it was replaced by the anchor escapement, invented around 1660 and widely used beginning in 1680.

Gridiron pendulum

grid-iron penduluminvariable pendulumtemperature compensated pendulums
This was solved by the invention of temperature-compensated pendulums; the mercury pendulum by George Graham in 1721 and the gridiron pendulum by John Harrison in 1726.
The gridiron pendulum was used during the Industrial Revolution period in regulator clocks, precision clocks employed as time standards in factories, laboratories, office buildings, and post offices to schedule work and set other clocks.

Bob (physics)

bob
This is usually an adjustment nut under the pendulum bob which moves the bob up or down on its rod.
A bob is the weight on the end of a pendulum found most commonly, but not exclusively, in pendulum clocks.

Master clock

master time systemsreference clock
In electromechanical pendulum clocks such as used in mechanical Master clocks the power source is replaced by an electrically powered solenoid that provides the impulses to the pendulum by magnetic force, and the escapement is replaced by a switch or photodetector that senses when the pendulum is in the right position to receive the impulse.
In the days before the availability of highly accurate reference time many master clocks were an accurate electrically maintained pendulum clock.

Cuckoo clock

cuckoo clockscuckoocuckoo-clock
Cuckoo clock
A cuckoo clock is a typically pendulum-regulated clock that strikes the hours with a sound like a common cuckoo's call and has an automated cuckoo bird that moves with each note.

Grandfather clock

longcase clocklongcase clocksgrandfather clocks
The long narrow clocks built around these pendulums, first made by William Clement around 1680, became known as grandfather clocks.
A grandfather clock (also a longcase clock, tall-case clock, grandfather's clock, or floor clock) is a tall, freestanding, weight-driven pendulum clock with the pendulum held inside the tower or waist of the case.

Escapement

detent escapementCross-beat escapementduplex escapements
An escapement that gives the pendulum precisely timed impulses to keep it swinging, and which releases the gear train wheels to move forward a fixed amount at each swing. This is the source of the "ticking" sound of an operating pendulum clock.
Invented around 1657 by Robert Hooke, the anchor (see animation at top of page) quickly superseded the verge to become the standard escapement used in pendulum clocks through the 19th century.

Remontoire

The remontoire, a small spring mechanism rewound at intervals which serves to isolate the escapement from the varying force of the wheel train, was used in a few precision clocks.
A gravity remontoire is one that uses a weight for power. It is used in precision pendulum clocks.

Ogee

ogivalogee archcyma reversa
Ogee clock
An "ogee clock" is a common kind of weight-driven 19th-century pendulum clock in a simplified Gothic taste, made in the United States for a mantelpiece or to sit upon a wall bracket.

Time

temporaldurationintervals
A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element.

Harmonic oscillator

harmonic oscillatorsharmonic oscillationharmonic
The introduction of the pendulum, the first harmonic oscillator used in timekeeping, increased the accuracy of clocks enormously, from about 15 minutes per day to 15 seconds per day leading to their rapid spread as existing 'verge and foliot' clocks were retrofitted with pendulums. The advantage of a pendulum for timekeeping is that it is a harmonic oscillator: it swings back and forth in a precise time interval dependent on its length, and resists swinging at other rates.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismIndustrial Age
Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries pendulum clocks in homes, factories, offices and railroad stations served as primary time standards for scheduling daily life, work shifts, and public transportation, and their greater accuracy allowed the faster pace of life which was necessary for the Industrial Revolution.

Antique

antiquesantique dealerheirloom
The home pendulum clock was replaced by cheaper synchronous electric clocks in the 1930s and '40s, and they are now kept mostly for their decorative and antique value.