Pennsylvania Station (1910–1963)

Pennsylvania StationPenn StationNew York Penn StationOld Penn Stationoriginal Pennsylvania StationPennsylvania Railroad StationPennsylvania Station in New York City1910 stationits predecessormarble eagles
Pennsylvania Station was a historic railroad station in New York City, named for the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), its builder and original tenant.wikipedia
242 Related Articles

Pennsylvania Station (New York City)

Penn StationPennsylvania StationNew York Penn Station
The station contained 11 platforms serving 21 tracks, in approximately the same layout as the current Penn Station.
The current facility is the remodeled underground remnant of the original Pennsylvania Station, a more ornate station building designed by McKim, Mead, and White and considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style.

Madison Square Garden

Madison Square GardensMadison Square Garden (IV)New York City
Over the next six years, the below-ground concourses and waiting areas were heavily renovated, becoming the modern Penn Station, while Madison Square Garden and Pennsylvania Plaza were built above them. Plans for the new Madison Square Garden above Penn Station were announced in 1962 by Irving M. Felt, the president of Graham-Paige, the company that purchased the air rights to Penn Station.
In November 1960, Graham-Paige president Irving Mitchell Felt purchased from the Pennsylvania Railroad the rights to build at Penn Station.

New York Tunnel Extension

Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal RailroadPennsylvania, New Jersey and New York RailroadPennsylvania, New York and Long Island Railroad
PRR President Alexander Johnston Cassatt adapted this method for the New York City area in the form of the New York Tunnel Extension project, which he created and led the overall planning effort for.
The project comprised tunnels and approaches from New Jersey and Long Island to Midtown Manhattan, leading to the PRR's massive new station, New York Penn Station.

McKim, Mead & White

McKim, Mead, and WhiteMcKim, Mead and WhiteMcKim, Meade & White
The building was designed by McKim, Mead, and White and completed in 1910, enabling direct rail access to New York City from the south for the first time. He commissioned Charles McKim of the New York architectural firm McKim, Mead & White to design the terminal.
The firm's New York City buildings include Manhattan's former Pennsylvania Station, the Brooklyn Museum, and the main campus of Columbia University.

Alexander Cassatt

Alexander J. CassattA. J. CassattAlexander Johnston Cassatt
PRR President Alexander Johnston Cassatt adapted this method for the New York City area in the form of the New York Tunnel Extension project, which he created and led the overall planning effort for.
Unfortunately, Cassatt died before his grand Pennsylvania Station in New York City was completed.

James A. Farley Building

James Farley Post OfficeJames A. Farley Post Office BuildingJames A. Farley Station
In February 1903, the U.S. government accepted the PRR's proposal and made plans to construct what would later become the Farley Post Office.
It is located in Midtown Manhattan and was built along with the original Pennsylvania Station in 1912.

History of Grand Central Terminal

Grand Central DepotGrand Central Stationconstruction of Grand Central Terminal
The rival New York Central Railroad's line transported passengers from the Hudson Valley in the city's north, ran along Park Avenue in Manhattan, and terminated at Grand Central Depot (later Grand Central Terminal) at 42nd Street and Park Avenue.
The current building was intended to compete with the now-destroyed Pennsylvania Station, a high-end electric-train hub being built on Manhattan's west side for arch-rival Pennsylvania Railroad by McKim, Mead & White.

Historic preservation

preservationpreservationistspreserved
Starting in 1963, the above-ground head house and train shed were demolished, a loss that galvanized the modern historic preservation movement.
In New York City, the destruction of Pennsylvania Station in 1964 shocked many nationwide into supporting preservation.

North River Tunnels

tunnelsHudsonHudson River Tunnel
The project was to include New York Penn Station; the North River Tunnels, crossing the Hudson River to the west; and the East River Tunnels, crossing the East River to the east.
The PRR and LIRR lines would converge at New York Penn Station, an expansive Beaux-Arts edifice between 31st and 33rd Streets in Manhattan.

Exchange Place station (Pennsylvania Railroad)

Exchange PlaceJersey City BranchExchange Place Terminal
Until the early 20th century, the PRR's rail network terminated on the western side of the Hudson River, once known locally as the North River, at Exchange Place in Jersey City, New Jersey.
In 1910 the PRR opened New York Penn Station in Manhattan.

Charles Follen McKim

Charles McKimCharles F. McKimMcKim
He commissioned Charles McKim of the New York architectural firm McKim, Mead & White to design the terminal.
McKim became best known as an exponent of Beaux-Arts architecture in styles of the American Renaissance, exemplified by the Boston Public Library (1888–95), and several works in New York City, including the Morningside Heights campus of Columbia University (1893), the University Club of New York (1899), the Pierpont Morgan Library (1903), New York Penn Station (1904–10), and The Butler Institute of American Art in Youngstown, Ohio (1919).

Hell Gate Bridge

Hell Gate LineHell GateHell Gate Bridge Route
The HR&PC would pass from the Bronx to Queens via the Hell Gate Bridge, then continue south through Queens, eventually connecting to the East River Tunnels and Penn Station.
In June 1906, the NH applied for and received a franchise to operate trains from the northeastern suburbs of New York City to Pennsylvania Station in Midtown Manhattan, built by the PRR.

East River Tunnels

East RiverEast River Railway Tunnelstunnels
The project was to include New York Penn Station; the North River Tunnels, crossing the Hudson River to the west; and the East River Tunnels, crossing the East River to the east.
The PRR and LIRR lines would converge at New York Penn Station, an expansive Beaux-Arts edifice between 31st and 33rd Streets in Manhattan.

Grand Central Terminal

Grand Central StationGrand CentralTerminal City
The rival New York Central Railroad's line transported passengers from the Hudson Valley in the city's north, ran along Park Avenue in Manhattan, and terminated at Grand Central Depot (later Grand Central Terminal) at 42nd Street and Park Avenue.
From the beginning, Grand Central's post office was designed to handle massive volumes of mail, though it was not as large as the James A. Farley Building, the post office that was built with the original Penn Station.

Lester C. Tichy

Tichy, Lester C.
A renovation in the late 1950s covered some of the grand columns with plastic and blocked off the spacious central hallway with the "Clamshell", a new ticket office designed by Lester C. Tichy.
Tichy is perhaps best known for his association with the Pennsylvania Railroad, for which he created the infamous “Clamshell”, an aluminum and steel canopy over the electronic ticketing area, in Penn Station’s Main Waiting Room in New York City.

Harlem Line

HarlemHarlem DivisionUpper Harlem Division
The New Haven would be able to accomplish this by constructing a spur from the four-track New Haven Railroad and New York Central Railroad main line in the Bronx (these railroads are now respectively the modern-day New Haven Line and Harlem Line of the Metro-North Railroad).
Penn Central continued to lose money and attempted several maneuvers to delay bankruptcy, including auctioning off the air rights of Grand Central Terminal; the Pennsylvania Railroad had done the same thing to Penn Station.

Adolph Alexander Weinman

Adolph A. WeinmanAdolph WeinmanA.A. Weinman
The railroad paid tribute to Cassatt, who died in 1906, with a statue designed by Adolph Alexander Weinman in the station's grand arcade.
He became the sculptor of choice for the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White and designed sculpture for their Manhattan Municipal Building, Madison Square Presbyterian Church (demolished), Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument, and the since-demolished Pennsylvania Railroad Station, all in New York City.

Jamestown Exposition

1907 issueJamestown TercentennialJamestown Tercentennial Exposition
The technology for the tunnels connecting to Penn Station was so innovative that, in 1907, the PRR shipped an actual 23 ft diameter section of the new East River Tunnels to the Jamestown Exposition in Norfolk, Virginia, to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the nearby founding of the colony at Jamestown.
The same section was later installed underwater as part of the link to the new Penn Station in New York City, with an inscription that it had been displayed at the Jamestown Exposition.

Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City

Penn Centralan unsuccessful challenge from Penn CentralNew York City Landmarks Preservation Law
Grand Central Terminal was ultimately preserved through the city's landmarks act, despite an unsuccessful challenge from Penn Central in 1978.
This law was passed after New York citizens grew concerned over the loss of culturally significant structures such as Pennsylvania Station, demolished in 1963.

Irving Mitchell Felt

Irving M. Felt
Plans for the new Madison Square Garden above Penn Station were announced in 1962 by Irving M. Felt, the president of Graham-Paige, the company that purchased the air rights to Penn Station.
Wanting to replace the old Garden with a new and modern facility that was more flexible, could handle larger crowds, and provided unobstructed views, in November 1960, he quietly purchased from the Pennsylvania Railroad the rights to build at Penn Station.

Gare d'Orsay

Orsay railway stationGare du Quai d'OrsayMusée d'Orsay
Cassatt's design for New York Penn Station was inspired by the Gare d'Orsay, a Beaux-Arts style station in Paris, though he planned for the new terminal to be twice as large.
As well, it was the inspiration for Penn Station in New York when Alexander Cassatt, president of Pennsylvania Railroad, traveled on his annual trips to Europe in 1901.

Empire State Building

The Empire State BuildingEmpire State350 Fifth Avenue
New York Times architecture critic Michael Kimmelman compared the demolition of the head house unfavorably to that of Lenox Library, destroyed to make way for the Frick Collection, or the old Waldorf–Astoria, razed for the construction of the Empire State Building.
The New York Times lauded the site's proximity to mass transit, with the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit's 34th Street station and the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad's 33rd Street terminal one block away, as well as Penn Station two blocks away and the Grand Central Terminal nine blocks away at its closest.

Tenderloin, Manhattan

TenderloinTenderloin districtThe Tenderloin
Clearing the site entailed "displacing thousands of residents from the largely African-American community in what was once known as the Tenderloin district in Manhattan."

Pennsylvania Plaza

Penn Plaza2 Penn PlazaPenn Plaza Pavilion
Over the next six years, the below-ground concourses and waiting areas were heavily renovated, becoming the modern Penn Station, while Madison Square Garden and Pennsylvania Plaza were built above them.
The Penn Plaza complex remains one of the most controversial in New York City history because it involved the destruction, beginning in 1963, of the original McKim, Mead and White-designed Penn Station (1910), a revered piece of New York architecture.

Vincent Scully

Vincent J. ScullyScully, VincentVincent J. Scully Jr.
Comparing the new and the old Penn Station, Yale architectural historian Vincent Scully once wrote, "One entered the city like a god; one scuttles in now like a rat."
Scully was a fierce critic of the 1963 destruction of New York's original Pennsylvania Station, memorably writing of it that, "One entered the city like a god. One scuttles in now like a rat."