Pentaglot Dictionary

Pentaglot
The Pentaglot Dictionary (Chinese: 御製五體清文鑑, Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian; the term 清文, Qingwen, "Qing language", was another name for the Manchu language in Chinese), also known as the Manchu Polyglot Dictionary, was a dictionary of major imperial languages compiled in the late Qianlong era of the Qing dynasty (also said to be compiled in 1794).wikipedia
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Uyghur language

UyghurUighurUighur language
The work contains Manchu lexemes and their translations into various administrative languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, post-classical or vernacular Chagatai (Eastern Turki, now known as Modern Uyghur since 1921) and Chinese.
The Qing dynasty commissioned dictionaries on the major languages of China which included Chagatai Turki language, such as the Pentaglot Dictionary.

Qianlong Emperor

QianlongQianlong eraQianlong period
The Pentaglot Dictionary (Chinese: 御製五體清文鑑, Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian; the term 清文, Qingwen, "Qing language", was another name for the Manchu language in Chinese), also known as the Manchu Polyglot Dictionary, was a dictionary of major imperial languages compiled in the late Qianlong era of the Qing dynasty (also said to be compiled in 1794).
He commissioned new Manchu dictionaries, and directed the preparation of the Pentaglot Dictionary which gave equivalents for Manchu terms in Mongolian, Tibetan and Turkic, and had the Buddhist canon translated into Manchu, which was considered the "national language".

Manchu language

ManchuManchurianNative Name
The work contains Manchu lexemes and their translations into various administrative languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, post-classical or vernacular Chagatai (Eastern Turki, now known as Modern Uyghur since 1921) and Chinese.
The Qianlong Emperor commissioned projects such as new Manchu dictionaries, both monolingual and multilingual like the Pentaglot.

Chagatai language

ChagataiTurkiChagatay
The work contains Manchu lexemes and their translations into various administrative languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, post-classical or vernacular Chagatai (Eastern Turki, now known as Modern Uyghur since 1921) and Chinese. From the top, the rows contain Manchu, Tibetan, a mechanical Tibetan transliteration into Manchu, a phonetic Tibetan transcription into Manchu, Mongolian, Chagatai, a transcription of Chagatai into Manchu, and Chinese.
The Qing dynasty commissioned dictionaries on the major languages of China which included Chagatai Turki, such as the Pentaglot Dictionary.

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
The Pentaglot Dictionary (Chinese: 御製五體清文鑑, Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian; the term 清文, Qingwen, "Qing language", was another name for the Manchu language in Chinese), also known as the Manchu Polyglot Dictionary, was a dictionary of major imperial languages compiled in the late Qianlong era of the Qing dynasty (also said to be compiled in 1794).

Classical Tibetan

TibetanTibetan languageWritten Tibetan
The work contains Manchu lexemes and their translations into various administrative languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, post-classical or vernacular Chagatai (Eastern Turki, now known as Modern Uyghur since 1921) and Chinese. Below the Manchu transliteration was the Manchu transcription to record the pronunciation in the Lhasa/Ü-Tsang dialect, due to the substantial difference between written Tibetan and spoken Tibetan.

Classical Mongolian language

Classical MongolianMongoliancmg
The work contains Manchu lexemes and their translations into various administrative languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, post-classical or vernacular Chagatai (Eastern Turki, now known as Modern Uyghur since 1921) and Chinese.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
The work contains Manchu lexemes and their translations into various administrative languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, post-classical or vernacular Chagatai (Eastern Turki, now known as Modern Uyghur since 1921) and Chinese.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
From the top, the rows contain Manchu, Tibetan, a mechanical Tibetan transliteration into Manchu, a phonetic Tibetan transcription into Manchu, Mongolian, Chagatai, a transcription of Chagatai into Manchu, and Chinese.

Uchen script

UchenUcan scriptUchen font
Tibetan used the common written Tibetan usage at the time, in horizontal script in Uchen script, with terms that could not be written into a single line divided at syllabic boundaries, and terminating punctuation marks.

Central Tibetan language

Central TibetanLhomiTibetan
Below the Manchu transliteration was the Manchu transcription to record the pronunciation in the Lhasa/Ü-Tsang dialect, due to the substantial difference between written Tibetan and spoken Tibetan.

Diglossia

diglossic diglossicdiglossic linguistic area
Below the Manchu transliteration was the Manchu transcription to record the pronunciation in the Lhasa/Ü-Tsang dialect, due to the substantial difference between written Tibetan and spoken Tibetan.

Tibetic languages

TibetanTibeticTibetan language
Below the Manchu transliteration was the Manchu transcription to record the pronunciation in the Lhasa/Ü-Tsang dialect, due to the substantial difference between written Tibetan and spoken Tibetan.

Nastaʿlīq

NastaliqNastaʿlīq scriptNastaleeq
Chagatai is written horizontally in Nastaʿlīq script, with terms that could not be written into a single line divided at syllabic boundaries and no terminal punctuations.

Turpan Depression

Turpan BasinTurfan DepressionTurfan Basin
Below Chagatai was Manchu transcription to record the eastern Xinjiang Turkic pronunciation, due to the substantial difference between Chagatai and the spoken language of Xingjiang at the time; the sounds showed characteristics of the pronunciations used in the Hami/Turpan regions; Chinese was spelled in traditional Chinese characters, also in vertical regular script, with the diction showing the influence of common usage in the Beijing Mandarin dialect.

Hami

KumulHami CityHami Prefecture
Below Chagatai was Manchu transcription to record the eastern Xinjiang Turkic pronunciation, due to the substantial difference between Chagatai and the spoken language of Xingjiang at the time; the sounds showed characteristics of the pronunciations used in the Hami/Turpan regions; Chinese was spelled in traditional Chinese characters, also in vertical regular script, with the diction showing the influence of common usage in the Beijing Mandarin dialect.

Turpan

TurfanTurpan PrefectureJiaohe
Below Chagatai was Manchu transcription to record the eastern Xinjiang Turkic pronunciation, due to the substantial difference between Chagatai and the spoken language of Xingjiang at the time; the sounds showed characteristics of the pronunciations used in the Hami/Turpan regions; Chinese was spelled in traditional Chinese characters, also in vertical regular script, with the diction showing the influence of common usage in the Beijing Mandarin dialect.

Beijing dialect

Beijing MandarinBeijingBeijing Mandarin dialect
Below Chagatai was Manchu transcription to record the eastern Xinjiang Turkic pronunciation, due to the substantial difference between Chagatai and the spoken language of Xingjiang at the time; the sounds showed characteristics of the pronunciations used in the Hami/Turpan regions; Chinese was spelled in traditional Chinese characters, also in vertical regular script, with the diction showing the influence of common usage in the Beijing Mandarin dialect.

Manuscript

manuscriptsMStypescript
The Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian has been transmitted in three known manuscripts, held by the Beijing Palace Museum, the Yonghe Temple, and the British Museum in London.

Palace Museum

The Palace MuseumBeijing Palace MuseumImperial Palace Museum
The Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian has been transmitted in three known manuscripts, held by the Beijing Palace Museum, the Yonghe Temple, and the British Museum in London.

Yonghe Temple

Lama TempleYonghegongYonghe Gong
The Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian has been transmitted in three known manuscripts, held by the Beijing Palace Museum, the Yonghe Temple, and the British Museum in London.

British Museum

The British MuseumBritish Museum PressBrit. Mus.
The Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian has been transmitted in three known manuscripts, held by the Beijing Palace Museum, the Yonghe Temple, and the British Museum in London.

Japan

JPNJapaneseJP
In 1967, an edition was published in Japan that added transliterations of Manchu, the Manchu transcriptions of the other languages and a Japanese translation.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
In 2013, a critical edition with complete transliterations as well as indices for all five languages was published in Germany.

Transcription into Chinese characters

transcriptionChinese transcriptiontranscribed
The four-language version of the dictionary with Tibetan was in turn based on an earlier three-language version with Manchu, Mongolian, and Chinese called the Yuzhi Manzhu Menggu Hanzi San He Jieyin Qingwen Jian 御製滿珠蒙古漢字三合切音清文鑑 ("Imperially-Published Manchu Mongol Chinese Three pronunciation explanation mirror of Qing"), which was in turn based on the Yuzhi Zengding Qing Wenjian 御製增訂清文鑑 ("Imperially-Published Revised and Enlarged mirror of Qing") in Manchu and Chinese, which used both Manchu script to transcribe Chinese words and Chinese characters to transcribe Manchu words with fanqie.