A report on People's Party (United States)

Economist Edward Kellogg was an early advocate of fiat money.
Charles W. Macune, one of the leaders of the Farmers' Alliance
People's Party candidate nominating convention held at Columbus, Nebraska, July 15, 1890
1892 People's Party campaign poster promoting James Weaver for President of the United States
1892 electoral vote results
In 1896, the 36-year-old William Jennings Bryan was the chosen candidate resulting from the fusion of the Democrats and the People's Party.
People's Party campaign poster from 1904 touting the candidacy of Thomas E. Watson

Left-wing agrarian populist late-19th-century political party in the United States.

- People's Party (United States)
Economist Edward Kellogg was an early advocate of fiat money.

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William Jennings Bryan

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American lawyer, orator and politician.

American lawyer, orator and politician.

Bryan's birthplace in Salem, Illinois
Attorney Mary Baird Bryan, the wife of William Jennings Bryan
A young Bryan
"UNITED SNAKES OF AMERICA" "IN BRYAN WE TRUST" political satire token of 1896, known as "Bryan Money"
Bryan campaigning for president, October 1896
1896 electoral vote results
The United States and its colonial possessions after the Spanish–American War
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
1900 electoral vote results
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Bryan speaking at the 1908 Democratic National Convention
Presidential Campaign button for Bryan
1908 electoral vote results
Bryan attending the 1912 Democratic National Convention
Bryan served as Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Cartoon of Secretary of State Bryan reading war news in 1914
Villa Serena, Bryan's home built in 1913 at Miami, Florida
Charles W. and William J. Bryan
At the Scopes Trial, William Jennings Bryan (seated, left) being questioned by Clarence Darrow (standing, right).
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee

Subsequently, Bryan was also nominated for president by the left-wing Populist Party, and many Populists would eventually follow Bryan into the Democratic Party.

1896 United States presidential election

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The 28th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1896.

The 28th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1896.

McKinley/Hobart campaign poster
Bryan's famous "cross of gold" speech gave him the presidential nomination and swung the party to the silver cause
The National "Gold" Democratic Convention
Palmer/Buckner campaign button
Conservatives said that Bryan (the Populist snake) was taking over (swallowing) the Democratic Party (the mule). Cartoon from "Judge" magazine, 1896.
Bryan's imposing voice and height made a deep impression on many who thronged to hear him.
Bryan traveled 18,000 miles in 3 months, concentrating on the critical states of the Midwest.
The National "Gold" Democratic Party undercut Bryan by dividing the Democratic vote and denouncing his platform.
Map of presidential election results by county
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Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county
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Bryan then won the nomination of the Populist Party, which had won several states in 1892 and shared many of Bryan's policies.

James B. Weaver

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Member of the United States House of Representatives and two-time candidate for President of the United States.

Member of the United States House of Representatives and two-time candidate for President of the United States.

Lieutenant James B. Weaver
Weaver's home, built in 1867 in Bloomfield
Weaver as a candidate for Congress, 1878
Thomas Nast depicts Weaver as an ungainly donkey who is finally recognized by Speaker Samuel J. Randall.
An 1880 cartoon in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper ridicules the Greenback party as a collection of disparate radicals.
Weaver supported white settlers' right to homesteads in the Unassigned Lands.
Weaver in 1892
1892 People's Party campaign poster
Weaver supported Democrat William Jennings Bryan for president in 1896.
James and Clara Weaver in 1908

As the Greenback Party fell apart, a new anti-big business third party, the People's Party ("Populists"), arose.

1892 United States presidential election

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The 27th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1892.

The 27th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1892.

Weaver/Field campaign poster
National Prohibition Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892.
Cleveland/Stevenson poster.
Map of presidential election results by county
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<center>James B. Weaver
<center>Senator
<center>Leonidas L. Polk
<center>Appellate Judge
<center>John Bidwell
<center>Prohibition Party Chairman
<center>Magazine Publisher
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Populist presidential election results by county
Map of "Other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Populist presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

Groups from The Grange and the Knights of Labor joined together to form a new party called the Populist Party.

Grover Cleveland

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American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897.

American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897.

Caldwell Presbyterian parsonage, birthplace of Grover Cleveland in Caldwell, New Jersey
An early, undated photograph of Grover Cleveland
Statue of Grover Cleveland outside City Hall in Buffalo, New York
Gubernatorial portrait of Grover Cleveland
An anti-Blaine cartoon presents him as the "tattooed man", with many indelible scandals.
An anti-Cleveland cartoon highlights the Halpin scandal.
Results of the 1884 election
Cleveland portrayed as a tariff reformer
Henry L. Dawes wrote the Dawes Act, which Cleveland signed into law.
Frances Folsom Cleveland circa 1886
Cleveland's first Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Thomas F. Bayard, Cleveland, Daniel Manning, Lucius Q. C. Lamar
Back row, left to right: William F. Vilas, William C. Whitney, William C. Endicott, Augustus H. Garland
Chief Justice Melville Fuller
Poster President Cleveland and Vice-President of the United States, Allen G. Thurman of Ohio (1888).
Results of the 1888 Election
Results of the 1892 election
Caricature of Cleveland as anti-silver.
Cleveland's humiliation by Gorman and the sugar trust
John T. Morgan, Senator from Alabama, opposed Cleveland on Free Silver, the tariff, and the Hawaii treaty, saying of Cleveland that "I hate the ground that man walks on."
His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated, 1894
Official portrait of President Cleveland by Eastman Johnson, c. 1891
Cleveland's last Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Daniel S. Lamont, Richard Olney, Cleveland, John G. Carlisle, Judson Harmon
Back row, left to right: David R. Francis, William Lyne Wilson, Hilary A. Herbert, Julius S. Morton
Cleveland in 1903 at age 66 by Frederick Gutekunst
Outgoing President Grover Cleveland, at right, stands nearby as William McKinley is sworn in as president by Chief Justice Melville Fuller.
$1000 Gold Certificate (1934) depicting Grover Cleveland
Cleveland postage stamp issued in 1923

Many Westerners (traditionally Republican voters), defected to James Weaver, the candidate of the new Populist Party.

Thomas E. Watson

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American politician, attorney, newspaper editor and writer from Georgia.

American politician, attorney, newspaper editor and writer from Georgia.

Thomas E. Watson as a younger man.
Watson's visage on a 1904 People's Party campaign poster.
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Statue of Thomas E. Watson

In the 1890s Watson championed poor farmers as a leader of the Populist Party, articulating an agrarian political viewpoint while attacking business, bankers, railroads, Democratic President Grover Cleveland, and the Democratic Party.

A $5 United States Note of the series of 1862 popularly known as a "greenback". owing to the color of ink used on the reverse

Greenback Party

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American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology which was active between 1874 and 1889.

American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology which was active between 1874 and 1889.

A $5 United States Note of the series of 1862 popularly known as a "greenback". owing to the color of ink used on the reverse
Salmon P. Chase, Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury, was a leading exponent of so-called "greenback" currency during the American Civil War
Contemporary news illustration of a run on the 4th National Bank of New York during the Panic of 1873
Peter Cooper of New York, presidential candidate of the Greenback Party.
James B. Weaver, presidential nominee of the Greenback Labor Party, was later a prominent figure in the Populist movement.
Representative Benjamin F. Butler of Massachusetts was the Greenback nominee for president in 1884

The organization faded into oblivion in the second half of the 1880s, with its basic program reborn shortly under the aegis of the People's Party, commonly known as the "Populists."

First banner of the Southern Farmers' Alliance, organized on a statewide basis in Texas in 1878

Farmers' Alliance

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Organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished ca. 1875.

Organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished ca. 1875.

First banner of the Southern Farmers' Alliance, organized on a statewide basis in Texas in 1878
Dr. Charles W. Macune, a top leader of the Southern Farmers' Alliance.
Counties with at least a 30% African-American population in 2000

The Farmers' Alliance moved into politics in the early 1890s under the banner of the People's Party, commonly known as the "Populists."

Republican campaign poster of 1896 attacking free silver

Free silver

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Major economic policy issue in the United States in the late 19th-century.

Major economic policy issue in the United States in the late 19th-century.

Republican campaign poster of 1896 attacking free silver
"The free silver highwayman at it again" in 1896
Cartoon from Puck showing a silverite farmer and a Democratic donkey whose wagon has been destroyed by the locomotive of sound money
1896 editorial cartoon equating the free silver movement with Frankenstein's monster.
Entitled, "A down-hill movement" by C.J. Taylor in 1896

The Populists also endorsed Bryan and free silver in 1896, which marked the effective end of their independence.

Drawing in Frank Leslie's of panicked stockbrokers on May 9, 1893.

Panic of 1893

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Economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897.

Economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897.

Drawing in Frank Leslie's of panicked stockbrokers on May 9, 1893.
The pro-Republican Judge magazine blamed the Panic of 1893 on the Democratic victory in the 1892 election.
The 1896 Broadway melodrama The War of Wealth was inspired by the panic of 1893.
The Grand Central Depot was an important hub for rail transportation, a major part of the shipping industry in the late nineteenth century

The People's Party, also known as the 'Populists', was an agrarian-populist political party in the United States.