People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Albaniacommunist regimeCommunist Albaniacommunist eracommunist governmentPeople's Republic of AlbaniacommunistAlbaniancommunismcommunist period
Albania (, ; Shqipëri/Shqipëria; ), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.wikipedia
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Enver Hoxha

HoxhaFirst Secretary of the PartyHoxha regime
Throughout this period, the country had a reputation for its Stalinist style of state administration influenced by Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour of Albania and for policies stressing national unity and self-reliance.
Enver Halil Hoxha (16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985) was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania.

1991 Albanian Constitutional Assembly election

1991Constituent Assembly electionsfirst multi-party elections
The first multi-party elections in Socialist Albania took place on 31 March 1991 – the Communists gained a majority in an interim government and the first parliamentary elections were held on 22 March 1992.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania on 31 March 1991, with later rounds on 7 April and 14 April.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion
It was the only Warsaw Pact member to formally withdraw from the alliance before 1990, an action occasioned by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
Approximately 250,000 Warsaw pact troops attacked Czechoslovakia that night, with Romania and Albania refusing to participate.

Constitution of Albania

Constitution1998 constitutionConstitution of the Republic of Albania
The People's Socialist Republic was officially dissolved on 28 November 1998 upon the adoption of the new Constitution of Albania.
The document succeeded the 1976 Constitution, originally adopted at the creation of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania on 28 December 1976 and heavily amended on 29 April 1991.

Special Court of Albania, 1945

Special Court of Spring 1945Special CourtSpecial Court of 1945
The internal affairs minister, Koçi Xoxe, "an erstwhile pro-Yugoslavia tinsmith", presided over the trial of many non-communist politicians condemned as "enemies of the people" and "war criminals".
Special Court for War Criminals and Enemies of the People (Gjyqi Special për Kriminelët e Luftës dhe Armiqtë e Popullit), usually referred only as Special Court (Gjyqi Special), was a Communist court set up during the spring of 1945 (1 March - 13 April) in the newly established Communist Albania, which carried on the trial against those labeled as "people's enemies" and "war criminals".

Warsaw Pact

Soviet blocWarsaw TreatyEastern Bloc
It was the only Warsaw Pact member to formally withdraw from the alliance before 1990, an action occasioned by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania and East Germany), which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later.

Koçi Xoxe

The internal affairs minister, Koçi Xoxe, "an erstwhile pro-Yugoslavia tinsmith", presided over the trial of many non-communist politicians condemned as "enemies of the people" and "war criminals".
Koçi Xoxe (pronounced ; May 1, 1911 – June 11, 1949) was an Albanian politician who served as Minister of Defence and Minister of the Interior of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.

Democratic Government of Albania

1944Albaniacommunist government
From 1944 to 1946, it was known as the Democratic Government of Albania and from 1946 to 1976 as the People's Republic of Albania.
On 10 January 1946 the People's Republic of Albania was proclaimed.

Party of Labour of Albania

First Secretary of the Albanian Party of LaborCommunist Party of AlbaniaParty of Labour
Throughout this period, the country had a reputation for its Stalinist style of state administration influenced by Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour of Albania and for policies stressing national unity and self-reliance.
The Party of Labour of Albania (PLA) (Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSH), sometimes referred to as the Albanian Workers' Party (AWP), was the vanguard party of Albania during the communist period (1945–1991) as well as the only legal political party.

Parliament of Albania

ParliamentAlbanian ParliamentPeople's Assembly
In December 1945, Albanians elected a new People's Assembly, but voters were presented with a single list from the Communist-dominated Democratic Front (previously the National Liberation Movement).
Later during multiple periods of regime changes, Albania's legislature was known as the Constituent Assembly (Albanian: Asambleja Kushtetuese or Kuvendi Kushtetues). This occurred in 1924, prior to the formation of the Albanian Republic, in 1928, prior to the formation of the first iteration of the Albanian Kingdom, and from 1946 to 1947, prior during the era Democratic Government of Albania and prior to the formation of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.

Greek Civil War

civil warGreececivil war in Greece
The Albanian regime feared that the United States and Britain, which were supporting anti-Communist forces in the ongoing civil war in Greece, would back Greek demands for territory in southern Albania; and anxieties grew in July when a United States Senate resolution backed the Greek demands.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος [Πόλεμος], o Emfýlios [Pólemos], "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army — backed by the United Kingdom and the United States — and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) — the military branch of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) — backed by Yugoslavia and Albania as well as by Bulgaria.

Corfu Channel incident

44 men were killeda series of encounters from May to November 1946Corfu Channel
A major incident between Albania and Britain erupted in 1946 after Tirana claimed jurisdiction over the channel between the Albanian mainland and the Greek island of Corfu.
This series of incidents led to the [[The Corfu Channel Case (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. People's Republic of Albania)|Corfu Channel case]], where the United Kingdom brought a case against the People's Republic of Albania to the International Court of Justice.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet bloccommunist blocEastern Europe
In February 1949, Albania gained membership in the communist bloc's organization for coordinating economic planning, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon).
That year, the fall of former French Indochina to communism following the end of the Vietnam War gave the Eastern Bloc renewed confidence which had been frayed by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev's 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia to suppress the Prague Spring, which had led to Albania withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact, briefly aligning with Mao Zedong's China until the Sino-Albanian split.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
The internal affairs minister, Koçi Xoxe, "an erstwhile pro-Yugoslavia tinsmith", presided over the trial of many non-communist politicians condemned as "enemies of the people" and "war criminals".
Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.

Milovan Đilas

Milovan DjilasDjilasDjilas, Milovan
Although the Soviet Union gave Albania a pledge to build textile and sugar mills and other factories and to provide Albania agricultural and industrial machinery, Joseph Stalin told Milovan Djilas, at the time a high-ranking member of Yugoslavia's communist hierarchy, that Yugoslavia should "swallow" Albania.
The book's references to Albania and its possible union with Yugoslavia were considered most embarrassing by the communist leaders.

Ramiz Alia

President Alia
Ramiz Alia, at the time a candidate-member of the Politburo and Hoxha's adviser on ideological questions, played a prominent role in the rhetoric.
Ramiz Tafë Alia (18 October 1924 – 7 October 2011) was the second and last leader of Communist Albania from 1985 to 1991, served as First Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania.

Corfu

CorcyraKerkyraCorfiot
A major incident between Albania and Britain erupted in 1946 after Tirana claimed jurisdiction over the channel between the Albanian mainland and the Greek island of Corfu.
This incident led to the [[The Corfu Channel Case (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. People's Republic of Albania)|Corfu Channel Case]], where the United Kingdom opened a case against the People's Republic of Albania at the International Court of Justice.

On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences

Secret Speechdenounceddenunciation of Stalin
Hoxha and Shehu tapped the Albanians' deep-seated fear of Yugoslav domination to remain in power during the thaw following the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956, when Khrushchev denounced Stalin's crimes in his "secret speech".
The speech was a major cause of the Sino-Soviet split, in which China (under Chairman Mao Zedong) and Albania (under First Secretary Enver Hoxha) condemned Khrushchev as a revisionist.

Sigurimi

Drejtorija e Sigurimit të Shtetitsecret-policeSigurimi file
But given their tight control of the party machinery, army, and Shehu's secret police, the Directorate of State Security (Drejtorija e Sigurimit të Shtetit—Sigurimi), the two Albanian leaders easily parried the threat.
The Directorate of State Security, commonly called the Sigurimi, was the state security, intelligence and secret police service of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
Tirana soon entered into trade agreements with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
This resulted in a break throughout the global Marxist–Leninist movement, with the governments in Albania, Cambodia and Somalia choosing to ally with China in place of the USSR.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
The education system, a tool for propagating communism and creating the academic and technical cadres necessary for construction of a socialist state and society, also improved dramatically.
saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.

Sino-Albanian split

brokesplittermination of relations with the People's Republic of China
The Sino-Albanian split left Albania with no foreign benefactor.
The Sino-Albanian split was the gradual worsening of relations between the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the People's Republic of China in the period 1972–78.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
On a twelve-day visit to Albania in 1959, Khrushchev reportedly tried to convince Hoxha and Shehu that their country should aspire to become "socialism's orchard".
The Eastern Bloc was the group of former Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact which included the People's Republic of Poland, the German Democratic Republic, the People's Republic of Hungary, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Socialist Republic of Romania, the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Comecon

Council for Mutual Economic AssistanceCMEACouncil for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon)
In February 1949, Albania gained membership in the communist bloc's organization for coordinating economic planning, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon).
Comecon was established at a Moscow economic conference January 5–8, 1949, at which the six founding member countries were represented; its foundation was publicly announced on January 25; Albania joined a month later and East Germany in 1950.

Northern Epirus

Northern EpiroteregionAlbania
The Albanian regime feared that the United States and Britain, which were supporting anti-Communist forces in the ongoing civil war in Greece, would back Greek demands for territory in southern Albania; and anxieties grew in July when a United States Senate resolution backed the Greek demands.
Stalinist Albania, already increasingly paranoid and isolated after de-Stalinization and the death of Mao Zedong (1976), restricted visitors to 6,000 per year, and segregated those few that traveled to Albania.