Pepper spray

Pepper spray demonstration
US Marines training after being exposed to pepper spray.
Police, like this Swedish police officer in riot gear at a 2007 demonstration, may use pepper spray to control civilians.

Lachrymatory agent used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.

- Pepper spray

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This telescopic steel security baton is sold to the public in Japan (2009).

Self-defense

Countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.

Countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.

This telescopic steel security baton is sold to the public in Japan (2009).
Demonstration of a Ju-Jitsu defense against a knife attack. Berlin 1924
A Bangladesh Rifles Senior Warrant Officer (left in yellow/green outfit) applies a mechanical advantage control/hold to a United States Marine during a demonstration.

Knives, especially those categorized as switchblades, may also be controlled, as may batons, pepper spray and personal stun guns and Tasers – although some may be legal to carry with a license or for certain professions.

Tear gas in use in France 2007

Tear gas

Early commercial aerosol, is a chemical weapon that stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland in the eye to produce tears.

Early commercial aerosol, is a chemical weapon that stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland in the eye to produce tears.

Tear gas in use in France 2007
Exploded tear gas canister on the fly in Greece
2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile is the active agent in CS gas.
A paramedic tending to an opposition protester during the 2014 Venezuelan protests
Fabiola Campillai, a Chilean woman left blind in both eyes by a direct hit of a tear-gas grenade in her face.
Tear gas being used against opposition protesters during the 2014 Venezuelan protests
A protester uses a sling to send a tear gas grenade back towards Israeli soldiers during a Palestinian weekly protest in Ni'lin, July 2014
Riot Police fire tear gas to anti-government protesters during Din Daeng Protests on August 2021

Common lachrymators both currently and formerly used as tear gas include pepper spray (OC gas), PAVA spray (nonivamide), CS gas, CR gas, CN gas (phenacyl chloride), bromoacetone, xylyl bromide and Mace (a branded mixture).

Capsaicin

Active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.

Active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.

Curry dishes
Chili peppers
Vanillamine is a product of the phenylpropanoid pathway
Valine enters the branched fatty acid pathway to produce 8-methyl-6-nonenoyl-CoA
Capsaicin synthase condenses vanillamine and 8-methyl-6-nonenoyl-CoA to produce capsaicin

Capsaicinoids are also an active ingredient in riot control and personal defense pepper spray agents.

Pepper stand at Central Market in Houston, Texas, showings its peppers ranked on the Scoville scale

Scoville scale

Measurement of the pungency of chili peppers, as recorded in Scoville Heat Units (SHU), based on the concentration of capsaicinoids, among which capsaicin is the predominant component.

Measurement of the pungency of chili peppers, as recorded in Scoville Heat Units (SHU), based on the concentration of capsaicinoids, among which capsaicin is the predominant component.

Pepper stand at Central Market in Houston, Texas, showings its peppers ranked on the Scoville scale
The ghost pepper of Northeast India is considered to be a "very hot" pepper, at about 1 million SHU.
The Naga Morich with around 1 million SHU is primarily found in Bangladesh.
The Red Savina pepper, a hot chili.
The capsaicin "pharmacophore", the portion of the molecule that produces biological effects

For law-enforcement-grade pepper spray, values from 500,000 up to 5 million SHU have been reported, but the actual strength of the spray depends on the dilution.

Rank of Icelandic National Police officers in full riot gear during the 2008 Icelandic lorry driver protests.

Riot control

Riot control measures are used by law enforcement, military, paramilitary or security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, unlawful demonstration or unlawful protest.

Riot control measures are used by law enforcement, military, paramilitary or security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, unlawful demonstration or unlawful protest.

Rank of Icelandic National Police officers in full riot gear during the 2008 Icelandic lorry driver protests.
Indonesian Mobile Brigade Corps riot control personnel and equipment
GRM horse platoon and rioteers Paris - Place de la Concorde - 1934
The centre of the International Settlement of Shanghai, 1928.
Colombian Police armored riot control vehicle with water cannon ISBI
Polish riot police squad in the 1930s, with opaque riot shields and no helmet visors, as polycarbonate had not been invented yet
A German SEK operator in riot gear holding a Tac700 Pepperball Launcher
Gendarmes mobiles carrying gas masks and a grenade launcher for deploying tear gas canisters
Mounted riot police as crowd control during protests in Edinburgh
German police deploy an armoured riot control vehicle at a demonstration in Hamburg.
A New York City Police Department officer stands ready with a sonic weapon, the LRAD 500X
French gendarmes mobiles using tear gas
This gendarme is shooting tear gas canisters using an Alsetex "Cougar" launcher
U.S. Army troops are shown attempting to keep Vietnam War protesters from rioting in Washington, D.C., 1967.
Syrian riot control in Damascus in 2012
Polish riot control police in Warsaw at the March of Independence in 2011
Defensive line of "Berkut" unitmen in riot gear by the Cabinet of Ministers building in Kyiv during 2013 Euromaidan protests.
Riot control group of Rio de Janeiro Police in confrontation with protesters in the historical center of the city.
Italian Celerini in the 1950s.
Pellet shotguns have been used by Indian security forces for crowd control in Jammu and Kashmir against stone pelting mobs.
Intervention vehicle for social events that interfered with demonstrators in Gezi Park (Istanbul) in 2013

Since the 1980s, riot control officers have also used tear gas, pepper spray, rubber bullets, and electric tasers.

Monday demonstrations in East Germany (1989–1991) helped bring down the Berlin Wall.

Political demonstration

Action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause or people partaking in a protest against a cause of concern; it often consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.

Action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause or people partaking in a protest against a cause of concern; it often consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.

Monday demonstrations in East Germany (1989–1991) helped bring down the Berlin Wall.
Demonstration in Canada against oil tankers, 1970
Greece, 2013: a working-class political protest calling for the boycott of a bookshop after an employee was fired, allegedly for her labor-rights political activism
Stockholm, 2015: protesters demonstrate against the city's new drastic plans for the Slussen area and interchange
Jakarta, 2019 : Protesters occupying the Gatot Subroto Avenue in front of the DPR/MPR Building
During the American Civil Rights Movement and the March on Washington, leaders marched from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28, 1963.
Orange Revolution demonstrations lasted so long that demonstrators set up tents.
Crowd in front of a McDonald's in Wangfujing on the 2011 Chinese pro-democracy protests
2013 Peace March for Hungary in Budapest
A nonviolent protest in New Zealand
An anti-Naftali Bennett demonstration in Tel Aviv, Israel, on September 23, 2021. One of the signs the demonstrators primarily carried translates in English to "BENNETT DANGEROUS TO ISRAEL!".
Demonstration in front of the British parliament

Police and military authorities often use non-lethal force or less-lethal weapons, such as tasers, rubber bullets, pepper spray, and tear gas against demonstrators in these situations.

A group of Gardaí

Garda Síochána

National police service of the Republic of Ireland.

National police service of the Republic of Ireland.

A group of Gardaí
Garda Traffic Corps car
The two helicopters of the Garda Air Support Unit
Garda helicopter performing surveillance
A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána
Garda Síochána Emergency Response Unit armed with an UZI submachine gun on duty in Dublin
An armed close protection officer from the Special Detective Unit protecting Queen Elizabeth II in 2011
Garda Toyota Avensis
Officers' Mess, Garda HQ
New Garda recruits salute the President of Ireland, An Tóstal, 1954
Garda Traffic Corps in Dublin
Garda directing traffic in Dublin during the 1960s
R.I.C. Barracks near the Depot headquarters, Phoenix Park, c.1865-1914
Gardaí at the site of the proposed Corrib gas refinery in Erris, County Mayo
Blanchardstown Garda Station
Garda Headquarters, Phoenix Park, Dublin

Individual Gardaí have been issued ASP extendable batons and pepper spray as their standard issue weapons while handcuffs are provided as restraints.

Chili pepper

"Red Chillies" redirects here.

"Red Chillies" redirects here.

Young chili plants
Thai pepper, similar in variety to the African birdseye, exhibits considerable strength for its size
Red Bhut Jolokia and green bird's eye chilies
Smoke-dried chipotle
Filipino tinola chicken soup with labuyo chili leaves
Chilies at a market in India
Sambal is the name for chili paste in Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean cuisine
Thai curry pastes contain large amounts of chilies
Illustration from the Japanese agricultural encyclopedia Seikei Zusetsu (1804)
The habanero pepper
Immature chilies in the field
Ripe chilies in the field, Myanmar
The Black Pearl cultivar
Cubanelle peppers
Ripe chili pepper with seeds
Scotch bonnet chili peppers in a Caribbean market
Chili peppers drying in Kathmandu, Nepal
Removing veins and seeds from dried chilies in San Pedro Atocpan
Dried chili pepper flakes and fresh chilies
Chili pepper dip in a traditional restaurant in Amman, Jordan
Dried Thai bird's eye chilies
Green chilies
Guntur chilli drying in the sun, Andhra Pradesh, India
Sundried chili at Imogiri, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
New Mexico chiles dried on the plant in Mesilla, New Mexico
Chili pepper wine from Virginia
alt=Chili peppers drying in hanging ristras|Ristras of chili peppers drying in Arizona.
thumb|White flower of chili paper at night
Choricero peppers
Pickled chili in India
Peperoncino chili in Tropea, Italy with a sign saying "Il Viagra Calabrese" (the Calabrian viagra).
Chili peppers cultivated in Myanmar
Dried chili pepper flakes, Myanmar
Green Chillies from North India. They are used as spice in many Indian dishes.
Buds and flowers

Capsaicin extracted from chilies is used in pepper sprays and some tear gas formulations as a chemical irritant, for use as less-lethal weapons for control of unruly individuals or crowds.

A Certis CISCO auxiliary police officer stands guard beside an armoured truck while his colleagues deliver high-valued goods to and from commercial clients at Change Alley, Singapore.

Auxiliary police

Auxiliary police, also called special police, are usually the part-time reserves of a regular police force.

Auxiliary police, also called special police, are usually the part-time reserves of a regular police force.

A Certis CISCO auxiliary police officer stands guard beside an armoured truck while his colleagues deliver high-valued goods to and from commercial clients at Change Alley, Singapore.
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Indian Home Guard Triservices Crest
A Malaysia Airports auxiliary police officer examining a passenger to prevent dangerous goods from being brought onto an airplane Kota Kinabalu International Airport, Malaysia.
A Malaysia Airport auxiliary police officer examining a list of luggage being scanned at Kota Kinabalu International Airport.
Sayreville, New Jersey auxiliary police car
Nassau County, New York auxiliary police car

Most are armed and, like members of the HKPF, are equipped with full gear and weapons including pepper spray, expandable batons and Smith & Wesson Model 10 revolvers as sidearms, with spare ammunition, while some are armed with Remington 870 shotguns.

Capsicum

Genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae, native to the Americas, cultivated worldwide for their chili pepper or bell pepper fruit.

Genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae, native to the Americas, cultivated worldwide for their chili pepper or bell pepper fruit.

A small capsicum plant
Red peppers in Cachi, Argentina air-drying before being processed into powder
An arrangement of chilis, including jalapeno, banana, cayenne, and habanero peppers.
Capsaicin.
Chili peppers
Crushed red pepper
C. annuum cultivars
thumb|Capsicum annum L. var. fasciculatum Irish.
thumb|Capsicum annum L. var. fasciculatum Irish.
A variety of coloured Capsicum
Peperoncini (C. annuum)
Peperoncini in kebab restaurant
Cayenne pepper (C. annuum)
Compact plant of orange Capsicum
Habanero chili (C. chinense Jacquin)- plant with flower and fruit
Scotch bonnet (C. chinense) in a Caribbean market
Scotch bonnet
Thai peppers (C. annuum)
Fresh Indian green chillies in Bangalore market
Piri piri (C. frutescens 'African Devil')
Naga jolokia Chilli (bhut jolokia) (C. chinense x C. frutescens)
C. annuum flower
C. annum flower close up
Green, yellow, and red capsicum
The flower of red hot bangi pepper, Malaysia
A small but very hot Capsicum in Malaysia
Peperoni cruschi, dried and crispy Capsicum from Basilicata
Capsicum in Bangladesh
Naga Morich in Bangladesh

In more recent times, an aerosol extract of capsaicin, usually known as capsicum or pepper spray, has become used by law enforcement as a nonlethal means of incapacitating a person, and in a more widely dispersed form for riot control, or by individuals for personal defense.