Perception

perceptualsensorysensory perceptionperceiveperceptperceptionshuman perceptionperceivedperceivingpsychology of perception
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.wikipedia
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Sense

sensesfive sensessensory
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

Information

informativeinputinputs
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message.

Sensory nervous system

sensory systemsensorysensory organ
All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system.
A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception.

Perceptual learning

learningimplicit perceptual processingperception learning
Perception is not only the passive receipt of these signals, but it's also shaped by the recipient's learning, memory, expectation, and attention.
Perceptual learning is learning better perception skills such as differentiating two musical tones from one another or categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns relevant to real-world expertise

Experimental psychology

experimental psychologistexperimentalpsychological experiment
Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques.
Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including (among others) sensation & perception, memory, cognition, learning, motivation, emotion; developmental processes, social psychology, and the neural substrates of all of these.

Philosophy of perception

perceptionperceiveperceived reality
Perceptual issues in philosophy include the extent to which sensory qualities such as sound, smell or color exist in objective reality rather than in the mind of the perceiver.
The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world.

Psychophysics

psychophysicalpsychophysicistHistory of psychophysics
Psychophysics quantitatively describes the relationships between the physical qualities of the sensory input and perception.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

Perceptual psychology

psychology of perceptioncognitive-perceptual processesperceptual
Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques.
Perceptual psychology is a subfield of cognitive psychology that is concerned specifically with the pre-conscious innate aspects of the human cognitive system: perception.

Multistable perception

bistable perceptionbistablebistable figure
An ambiguous stimulus may be translated into multiple percepts, experienced randomly, one at a time, in what is called multistable perception.
Multistable perception (or Bistable perception) are a form of perceptual phenomena in which there are unpredictable sequences of spontaneous subjective changes.

Stimulus modality

sensory modalitiesmodalitysensory modality
The different kinds of sensation such as warmth, sound, and taste are called sensory modalities.
Multimodal perception comes into effect when a unimodal stimulus fails to produce a response.

Illusion

illusionsillusoryCognitive Illusions
Although the senses were traditionally viewed as passive receptors, the study of illusions and ambiguous images has demonstrated that the brain's perceptual systems actively and pre-consciously attempt to make sense of their input.
Some illusions are based on general assumptions the brain makes during perception.

Perceptual system

The perceptual systems of the brain enable individuals to see the world around them as stable, even though the sensory information is typically incomplete and rapidly varying.
Research in the field of perceptual systems focuses on computational aspects of perception.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
By the ascending auditory pathway these are led to the primary auditory cortex within the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is where the auditory information arrives in the cerebral cortex and is further processed there.
It plays a key role in attention, perception, awareness, thought, memory, language, and consciousness.

Henri Bergson

BergsonBergsonianBergsonism
"Percept" is also a term used by Leibniz, Bergson, Deleuze, and Guattari to define perception independent from perceivers.
This rather difficult work investigates the function of the brain and undertakes an analysis of perception and memory, leading up to a careful consideration of the problems of the relation of body and mind.

Sweetness

sweetsweetersweet-tasting
There are five primary tastes: sweetness, bitterness, sourness, saltiness, and umami.
Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.

Jerome Bruner

BrunerJerome S. BrunerBruner, Jerome
Psychologist Jerome Bruner has developed a model of perception.
Bruner is one of the pioneers of cognitive psychology in the United States, which began through his own early research on sensation and perception as being active, rather than passive processes.

Auditory cortex

primary auditory cortexauditoryauditory processing
By the ascending auditory pathway these are led to the primary auditory cortex within the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is where the auditory information arrives in the cerebral cortex and is further processed there.
As with other primary sensory cortical areas, auditory sensations reach perception only if received and processed by a cortical area.

Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenic
All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system.
These areas perform signal-processing functions that include feature detection, perceptual analysis, memory recall, decision-making, and motor planning.

Odor

aromascentodour
The basic tastes contribute only partially to the sensation and flavor of food in the mouth — other factors include smell, detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose; texture, detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc.; and temperature, detected by thermoreceptors.
While odor feelings are very personal perceptions, individual reactions are usually related.

Gilles Deleuze

DeleuzeDeleuze, GillesDeleuzian
"Percept" is also a term used by Leibniz, Bergson, Deleuze, and Guattari to define perception independent from perceivers.
While philosophy creates concepts, the arts create novel qualitative combinations of sensation and feeling (what Deleuze calls "percepts" and "affects"), and the sciences create quantitative theories based on fixed points of reference such as the speed of light or absolute zero (which Deleuze calls "functives").

Visual perception

visionsighteyesight
Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, hearing, somatic sensation (touch), taste and olfaction (smell).
The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular).

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
The principles of grouping (or Gestalt laws of grouping) are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to explain how humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects.
Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality.

Phonemic restoration effect

phonemic restoration
The perceptual systems of the brain achieve perceptual constancy in a variety of ways, each specialized for the kind of information being processed, with phonemic restoration as a notable example from hearing.
Phonemic restoration effect is a perceptual phenomenon where under certain conditions, sounds actually missing from a speech signal can be restored by the brain and may appear to be heard.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
The contrast effect was noted by the 17th Century philosopher John Locke, who observed that lukewarm water can feel hot or cold, depending on whether the hand touching it was previously in hot or cold water.
Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.

Stimulus (psychology)

stimulusstimuliresponse
The principle of proximity states that, all else being equal, perception tends to group stimuli that are close together as part of the same object, and stimuli that are far apart as two separate objects.