Percutaneous coronary intervention

coronary angioplastyPCIpercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplastyPTCAfor the treatment of coronary artery diseasePercutaneous coronary angioplastystenting(PCI)angioplastyangioplasty operation
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.wikipedia
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Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
Primary PCI is the urgent use of PCI in people with acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), especially where there is evidence of heart damage on the electrocardiogram (ST elevation MI).
In a STEMI, treatments attempt to restore blood flow to the heart, and include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), where the arteries are pushed open and may be stented, or thrombolysis, where the blockage is removed using medications.

Coronary stent

coronary artery stentheart stentstent
After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open.
It is used in a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Interventional cardiology

interventional cardiologistinterventional cardiologistsinterventional cardiac catheterization
After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI/Coronary angioplasty): the use of angioplasty for the treatment of obstruction of coronary arteries as a result of coronary artery disease. A deflated balloon catheter is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as coronary stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open. Various other procedures can also be performed at the same time. After a heart attack, it can be restricted to the culprit vessel (the one whose obstruction or thrombosis is suspected of causing the event) or complete revascularization; complete revascularization is more efficacious in terms of major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality.

Door-to-balloon

door to balloon
The door-to-balloon time is used as a quality measure for hospitals to determine the timeliness of primary PCI.
Currently fewer than half of STEMI patients receive reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention within the guideline-recommended timeframe.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.
This may be performed using a percutaneous coronary intervention, during which narrowings can be expanded by passing small balloon-tipped wires into the coronary arteries, inflating the balloon to expand the narrowing, and sometimes leaving behind a metal scaffold known as a stent to keep the artery open.

Cardiac catheterization

heart catheterizationcardiac catheterisationcardiac catheter
Coronary angioplasty is usually performed using invasive catheter-based procedures by an interventional cardiologist, a medical doctor with special training in the treatment of the heart.
Percutaneous coronary intervention is a blanket term that involves the use of mechanical stents, balloons, etc to increase blood flow to previously blocked (or occluded) vessels.

Coronary arteries

coronary arterycoronaryarteries
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.
Percutaneous coronary interventions (such as balloon angioplasty) or coronary artery bypass surgery can be performed to decrease or bypass the blockages (respectively).

Angioplasty

balloon angioplastyangioplastiespercutaneous transluminal angioplasty
After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open.
A percutaneous coronary intervention is first performed.

Coronary artery bypass surgery

heart bypassbypass surgeryheart bypass surgery
PCI is an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, often referred to as "bypass surgery"), which bypasses stenotic arteries by grafting vessels from elsewhere in the body.
A study comparing the outcomes of all patients in New York state treated with CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) demonstrated CABG was superior to PCI with DES in multivessel (more than one diseased artery) coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients treated with CABG had lower rates of death and of death or myocardial infarction than treatment with a coronary stent. Patients undergoing CABG also had lower rates of repeat revascularization. The New York State registry included all patients undergoing revascularization for coronary artery disease, but was not a randomized trial, and so may have reflected other factors besides the method of coronary revascularization.

Restenosis

coronary restenosisre-stenosisrestenotic
Brachytherapy (use of radioactive source to inhibit restenosis)
Angioplasty, also called percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), is commonly used to treat blockages of the coronary or peripheral arteries (such as in the limbs).

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.
Procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be used in severe disease.

Bivalirudin

4) During the X-ray visualization, the cardiologist estimates the size of the coronary artery and selects the type of balloon catheter and coronary guidewire that will be used during the case. Heparin (a "blood thinner" or medicine used to prevent the formation of clots) is given to maintain blood flow. Bivalirudin when used instead of heparin has a higher rate of myocardial infarction but lower rates of bleeding.
Bivalirudin clinical studies demonstrated consistent positive outcomes in patients with stable angina, unstable angina (UA), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI in 7 major randomized trials.

Drug-eluting stent

drug eluting stentdrug-eluting stentsdrug-eluting
A 2014 meta-analysis showed there may be improved mortality with second generation drug-eluting stents, which were not available during the COURAGE trial.
A recent study comparing the outcomes of all patients in New York state treated with CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) demonstrated CABG was superior to PCI with DES in multiple vessel coronary artery disease.

Stenosis

stricturestricturesnarrowing
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

Femoral artery

femoralsuperficial femoral arteryfemoral arteries
After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualise the blood vessels on X-ray imaging.

Radial artery

radialradial arteriesradial pulse
After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualise the blood vessels on X-ray imaging.

Balloon catheter

angioplasty, balloonBalloonsballoon
After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open.

Electrocardiography

electrocardiogramECGelectrocardiograph
Primary PCI is the urgent use of PCI in people with acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), especially where there is evidence of heart damage on the electrocardiogram (ST elevation MI).

Unstable angina

pre-infarct anginaunstableunstable angina pectoris
PCI is also used in people after other forms of myocardial infarction or unstable angina where there is a high risk of further events.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
Finally, PCI may be used in people with stable angina pectoris, particularly if the symptoms are difficult to control with medication.

Antianginal

anti-angina medicationantianginal agentanti
The use of PCI in addition to anti-angina medication in stable angina may reduce the number of patients with angina attacks for up to 3 years following the therapy, but does not reduce the risk of death, future myocardial infarction or need for other interventions.

Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemic
If symptoms indicate the procedure is causing ischemia the cardiologist may alter or abort part of the procedure.

Antiplatelet drug

antiplateletplatelet aggregation inhibitorantiplatelet agent
Bleeding from the insertion point in the groin (femoral artery) or wrist (radial artery) is common, in part due to the use of antiplatelet drugs.

Bruise

bruisingcontusionbruises
Some bruising is therefore to be expected, but occasionally a hematoma may form.