Perennial plant

perennialperennialsherbaceous perennialperennial herbperennial plantsperennial herbsperennial grassperennatingherbaceous perennial plantherbaceous perennials
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.wikipedia
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Penstemon

beardtonguebeardtongues speciesflower
An intermediate class of plants is known as subshrubs, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e.g. Penstemon.
Most penstemons are deciduous or semi-evergreen perennials, the remainder being shrubs or subshrubs.

Annual plant

annualannualsannual plants
The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials.
Some perennials and biennials are grown in gardens as annuals for convenience, particularly if they are not considered cold hardy for the local climate.

Orchidaceae

orchidorchidsorchid family
They include a wide assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the highly diverse flowering plants like orchids and grasses.
All orchids are perennial herbs that lack any permanent woody structure.

Semelparity and iteroparity

semelparousiteroparousiteroparity
Plants that flower and fruit only once and then die are termed monocarpic or semelparous.
This distinction is also related to the difference between annual and perennial plants.

Biennial plant

biennialbiennialsbiennial plants
The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials.
There are far fewer biennials than either perennial plants or annual plants.

Bergenia

There is also a class of evergreen, or non-herbaceous, perennials, including plants like Bergenia which retain a mantle of leaves throughout the year.
They are clump-forming, rhizomatous, evergreen perennials with a spirally arranged rosette of leaves 6–35 cm long and 4–15 cm broad, and pink flowers produced in a cyme.

Poaceae

grassturfgrass family
They include a wide assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the highly diverse flowering plants like orchids and grasses.
Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs, generally with the following characteristics (the image gallery can be used for reference):

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Annual plants grow and reproduce within one growing season, biennial plants grow for two growing seasons and usually reproduce in second year, and perennial plants live for many growing seasons and once mature will often reproduce annually.

Herbaceous plant

herbherbaceousherbs
Perennials, especially small flowering plants, that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, and then return in the spring from their rootstock, are known as herbaceous perennials. Examples of herbaceous perennials used in agriculture include alfalfa, Thinopyrum intermedium, and Red clover.
The term is mainly applied to perennials, but in botany it may also refer to annuals or biennials, and include both forbs and graminoids.

Perennial rice

Some examples of new perennial crops being developed are perennial rice and intermediate wheatgrass.
Perennial rice—like many other perennial plants—can spread by horizontal stems below or just above the surface of the soil but they also reproduce sexually by producing flowers, pollen and seeds.

The Land Institute

Land InstituteKernza
The Land Institute estimates that profitable, productive perennial grain crops will take at least 25 years to achieve.
Their goal is to develop an agricultural system based on perennial crops that "has the ecological stability of the prairie and a grain yield comparable to that from annual crops".

Goldenrod

Solidagogoldenrodsgolden rod
Examples of deciduous perennials include goldenrod and mint.
Most are herbaceous perennial species found in open areas such as meadows, prairies, and savannas.

Begonia

begoniasBegôniasflower
Examples of evergreen perennials include Begonia and banana.
Begonia is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae.

Zostera

eelgrasseel grassmarine eelgrass
Perennial plants dominate many natural ecosystems on land and in fresh water, with only a very few (e.g. Zostera) occurring in shallow sea water.
Most Zostera are perennial.

Mentha

mintmint leavesmints
Examples of deciduous perennials include goldenrod and mint.
Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial herbs.

Alfalfa

lucerneMedicago sativaalfalfa hay
Examples of herbaceous perennials used in agriculture include alfalfa, Thinopyrum intermedium, and Red clover.
Alfalfa, also called lucerne and called Medicago sativa in binomial nomenclature, is a perennial flowering plant in the legume family Fabaceae.

Banana

bananasbanana treebanana flower
Examples of evergreen perennials include Begonia and banana.
) After fruiting, the pseudostem dies, but offshoots will normally have developed from the base, so that the plant as a whole is perennial.

Thinopyrum intermedium

intermediate wheatgrassA. intermediumKernza
Some examples of new perennial crops being developed are perennial rice and intermediate wheatgrass. Examples of herbaceous perennials used in agriculture include alfalfa, Thinopyrum intermedium, and Red clover.
Thinopyrum intermedium, known commonly as intermediate wheatgrass, is a sod-forming perennial grass in the Triticeae tribe of Pooideae.

Agave

magueyagavesAgave (Pita) Americana
Examples of monocarpic perennials include Agave and some species of Streptocarpus.
Plants in this genus may be considered perennial, because they require several to many years to mature and flower.

Hibiscus

bissapgumamelaHibiscus hamabo
Hibiscus
The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees.

Vegetative reproduction

vegetativelyvegetativevegetative propagation
Perennials typically grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next through a form of vegetative reproduction rather than seeding.
Natural vegetative propagation is mostly a process found in herbaceous and woody perennial plants, and typically involves structural modifications of the stem, although any horizontal, underground part of a plant (whether stem, leaf, or root) can contribute to vegetative reproduction of a plant.

Blueberry

blueberriesWild Blueberryblueberry jam
Blueberry
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.

Woody plant

woodywoody plantsligneous
Examples of woody perennials include maple, pine, and apple trees.
These are usually perennial plants whose stems and larger roots are reinforced with wood produced from secondary xylem.

Trifolium pratense

red cloverpratensered clover (''Trifolium pratense'')
Examples of herbaceous perennials used in agriculture include alfalfa, Thinopyrum intermedium, and Red clover.
It is a herbaceous, short-lived perennial plant, variable in size, growing to 20–80 cm tall.

Streptocarpus

Examples of monocarpic perennials include Agave and some species of Streptocarpus.
First is the rosulate form, which is perennial.