Perforator vein

perforators
Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.wikipedia
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Ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs

lower limbs venous ultrasonographyUltrasonography of chronic insufficiency of the legsultrasound
In this case, lower limbs venous ultrasonography plays an important role in evaluating which continent perforators can be used.
Perforator veins drain superficial veins into the deep veins.

Deep fascia

investing fasciafasciadeep investing fascia
Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.

Superficial vein

superficial veinssuperficialsuperficial vessels
Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.

Deep vein

deepdeep veinsdeep vessels
Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.

Regurgitation (circulation)

regurgitationvalvular regurgitationbackflow
They have valves which prevent blood flowing back (regurgitation) from deep to superficial veins in muscular systole or contraction.

Systole

systolicsystolic pressureventricular systole
They have valves which prevent blood flowing back (regurgitation) from deep to superficial veins in muscular systole or contraction.

Venous ulcer

leg ulcerVaricose ulcerVenous insufficiency ulceration
The resulting reflux can cause a rapid deterioration in an existing varicose disease and be responsible for the development of venous ulcers.

Surgical incision

incisionincisionssurgical wound
In 1985, G. Hauer described the Sub-fascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) technique allowing IPVs to be clipped through a small incision.

Laparoscopy

laparoscopiclaparoscopic surgerylaparoscopically
SEPS was superseded in 2001 by a minimally invasive technique using pin hole surgery, called TRansLuminal Occlusion of Perforators (TRLOP) which by 2009 had shown to be as effective as SEPS in a 5-year study.

Perforator flaps

Some perforators can have a mixed septal and intramuscular course before reaching the skin.

Venous thrombosis

venous thromboembolismthromboembolismthromboembolic disease
Nevertheless, they can progress to the deep veins through the perforator veins or, they can be responsible for a lung embolism mainly if the head of the clot is poorly attached to the vein wall and is situated near the sapheno-femoral junction.

Varicose veins

varicose veinvaricositiesvaricose
There is increasing evidence for the role of incompetent perforator veins (or "perforators") in the formation of varicose veins.

Ultrasonography of deep vein thrombosis

Ultrasonography of deep venous thrombosisUltrasonography for deep venous thrombosisultrasonography for deep vein thrombosis
All collateral veins are better detected this way, including perforator veins, but of most importance is the detection of venous thrombosis.

Radiofrequency ablation

fulgurationradio frequency ablationradiofrequency
Radiofrequency ablation is used to treat the great saphenous vein, the small saphenous vein, and the perforator veins.

Human leg

leglegslower limb
A series of perforator veins interconnect the superficial and deep systems.

Telangiectasia

spider veinstelangiectasiastelangiectases
Research has shown that 88-89% of women with telangectasia (spider veins) have refluxing reticular veins close, and 15% have incompetent perforator veins nearby.

Posterior tibial vein

posterior tibial veinsposterior tibialvein
They receive the most important perforator veins: the Cockett perforators, superior, medial and inferior.

Communicating vein

Communicating veinsperforating veins
In this case they are called perforator veins and have a very important role in the venous system hemodynamics.